To Ms. Amelia Quizzing, class adviser of the researchers who succeeding give time and support to the researchers and giving considerations. To Ms. Lydia Change, Department head of Science and Mr.. Rosary Villainies, School Principal who give their financial and moral support in ma king the project. TO Mrs.. Lucent S. Pagination and Mrs.. Lucie Music for lending the researchers to use to Bio – Laboratory. To our beloved parents who give the researchers inspiration and financial assistance, give all their best to support the researchers in conducting the study.
To the classmates of the searchers IV – CBS who give their support and attention to the researchers to provide them confidence in conducting the study. And above all, to God Almighty, for his abundant love, blessings and spiritual guidance. Chapter l: Introduction A. Background of the study Most of the time people often use drugs and other chemical employed medicines rather than herbal medicines. People in secluded areas where pharmacies and other drug store were not gradually present often use herbal medicines in a reason that it is cheaper yet easy to find alternatives.
Most of the plants used were safe and reliable. Nature has bowed on us a very rich botanical wealth and a large number of diverse types of plants grow in different parts of the world. Philippines were actually benefited with this resources. Many plants were typically distributed within the whole country. Every region of the entire country has their own plants that is helpful and beneficial. Some plants had their own potential in curing different kind of diseases such as fever, flu, and even common cold. The plant Carboniferous halocarbon Lion. Longs to the family Sapience, commonly known as Balloon vine or Love in a puff with the season of its seeds having a heart shape on it and Parole – payroll named locally. It is an annual or sometimes perennial climber, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical part of the continents Asia and Africa. Parole-payroll is a slender, 1 to 3 meters in length. Leaves are in trig shape, and 5 to 9 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate to lancelet, and 1 to 5 centimeters long, with coarsely toothed or lobed margins. Flowers are small and white for about 2 to 5 centimeters. Sepals are 4, concave, the outer ones small.
Petals are 4, two larger ones usually adhering to the sepals and with an marinate call above the base, the smaller 2 ones distant from the stamens. Stamens are 8, eccentric, filaments free or connote at the base. Ovary is 3-celled, style 3-fide, ovules solitary. Fruits are inflated, bovid, 1. 5 to 2. 5 centimeters long, somewhat triangular. Seeds are have a heart pattern usually obviously observed when opened. Escherichia coli is is a Gram- negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the food that a person eating whenever the food is not properly prepared.
It is a bacteria gradually found in food that we eat and can cause DOD poisoning leading to worse diseases. It is commonly abbreviated as E. Coli. Most of E. Coli strains are harmless, but some serpents can cause severe distress and disease to humans involved in devouring such food that contain E. Coli. Escherichia coli commonly cause diarrhea to humans. Diarrhea is the abnormally frequent intestinal evacuations with more or less fluid stools. It is severe to humans with uncontrolled eating and without a balanced diet in their life. Diarrhea is caused by bacteria or bacterium that gradually spread in food that we eat and anything we devour.
Common diarrhea is caused by E. Coli ND can be cured easily while serious type of diarrhea might lead to the death of the victim. B. Statement of the problem This research project entitled Photochemical analysis and Antibacterial effectiveness of Parole – payroll ( Carboniferous halocarbon Lion. ) leaf extract against Escherichia coli aims to answer the following questions: 1 . Can the leaf extract of the Parole – payroll ( Carboniferous halocarbon Lion ) can kill the E. Coli which causes common diarrhea? 2. What photochemical are present in aqueous extract of the leaves of the plant? 3.
Are the photochemical stated on reliable sources of the plant true? C. Significance of the study Diarrhea or Diarrhea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day and its common cause is the gastroenteritis or the medical condition characterized by inflammation Of gastrointestinal tract. Parole-payroll lives every. Veer, in short it is wild-crafted and can be found at the back of our houses and even near the farms. It is also used as alternative spinach used for cooking different delicacies. This kind of plant is easy to find and more edible than the other plants.
Most of the seeds are used to make an oil and this oil is used as insect repellent. This study can reduce cases of diarrhea in the Philippines. The Potential of Parole-payroll (Carboniferous halocarbon) plant as Antibacterial solution against Escherichia coli would be significant. D. Scope and Limitation of the study The project covers the photochemical screening and antibacterial effectiveness of the leaves of the plant Parole – payroll ( Carboniferous halocarbon Lion. The ethanol leaf extract of the plant only aim to kill E. Coli which causes common diarrhea in the community.
The food that we eat may contain this bacterium. The aqueous extract of the leaves of the plant ill be use for photochemical screening. The Antimicrobial Assay or biopsy will determine if the leaves extract have their potential in killing such organism. The photochemical screening or analysis is conducted in the Biology Laboratory of the San Miguel National High School. photochemical such as Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Glycoside, Captains, Phenols, Tannins, Anticipation, Protein, Flavorings will be tested in the campus of San Miguel National High School.
Rotary Evaporation is conducted in the Institute of Chemistry inside the campus of University of the Philippines Dilemma. The assay or antimicrobial assay will be conducted inside the campus of university of the Philippines Dilemma ( Natural Sciences Research Institute ). The information stated covers the study. E. Definition of Terms Antibacterial – any substance that promotes oppose diarrhea infection. Photochemical – a chemical compound occurring naturally in plants Escherichia coli – an neurotransmitter that is used in public health as an indicator of fecal pollution and in medicine. It causes intestinal illness.
Captains -? any of various mostly toxic glycoside that occur in plants and are characterized by the property of producing soap lather. It is used especially as a foaming and emulsifying agent and detergent. Tannins – any of various soluble astringent compels phonetic substances of plant origin used especially in tanning leather and dyeing fabric, manufacturing ink, clarifying wine and beer, and in medicine. Alkaloids – any of numerous usually, complex, and bitter organic bases contains nitrogen and usually oxygen that occur especially in seed plants and are typically physiologically active.
Flavorings – any of a group of oxygen-containing aromatic antioxidant compounds that includes many common pigments. Procrastinations -? a rueful antioxidant that chemically belongs to Floridians. Pigpen – found in many plants that used to be a yellow crystalline solid. Photometer’s – any various solid steroid alcohols ( as cholesterol ) widely distributed in animal and plant lipids. Stereos that are found in plants. Glycoside – any of numerous sugar derivatives that contain a nonsingular group bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen atom and that on hydrolysis yield a sugar.
Cardiac glycoside – drugs that used to treat heart diseases and failures. Biogas – determination of the relative strength of a substance by comparing its effect n a test organism with that of a standard preparation. Rotary Evaporation the process reducing the volume of the solvent. The process is done with the rotary evaporator. Chapter II: Review of Related Literature A. Relevant Information on the project a. Description Fig. 1 Parole – payroll plant Parole-payroll is a slender, herbaceous, more or less hairy vine, 1 to 3 meters in length.
Leaves are trilobite, and 5 to 9 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate to lancelet, and 1 to 5 centimeters long, with coarsely toothed or lobed margins. Flowers are small, white, and about 2. 5 millimeters long. Sepals are 4, concave, the outer ones small. Petals are 4, two larger ones usually adhering to the sepals and with an marinate scale above the base, the smaller 2 ones distant from the stamens. Stamens are 8, eccentric, filaments free or connote at the base. Ovary is 3-celled, style 3-fide, ovules solitary. Fruits are inflated, bovid, 1. To 2. 5 centimeters long, somewhat triangular and 3- keeled. Seeds are round and black, with a prominent, white, heart-shaped aril at the base. ( Philippine Medicinal Plants ) Escherichia coli is an interrogatories that is used in public health as an indicator Of fecal pollution ( as of Water Or food ) and in medicine and genetics as a research organism and that occurs in various strains that may live as harmless inhabitants of the human lower intestine or may produce a toxin causing intestinal illness. ( Merriam -? Webster Dictionary ) b.
Known Constituents Alkaloids Any of numerous usually colorless, complex and bitter organic bases ( as morphine or caffeine ) contains nitrogen and usually oxygen that occur especially in seed plants and are typically physiologically active. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Alkaloids contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur. Alkaloids are one of the photochemical that fight against diarrhea. It is normally found plants, animals and even bacteria. It is known for bitter taste if taken orally and directly.
Alkaloids are good agent fighting bacteria in human body. Tannins Tannins are used in making tanning leather and dyeing fabric, manufacturing ink, clarifying wine and beer, and in medicine. It might be in the form of spongy mass or powdered. Tannins are also known as tanning. It helps a lot in plant growth regulation. Tannins plays important roles in ripening of fruit and the aging of nine. Also used as pesticides and also a good antibacterial agent that helps terminating and inhibiting the growth of a bacteria. Spoon Captains are gradually found in many plants that have the potential in making soap and treating diarrhea.
Captains can be found in many plants even marine organism have its presence. In testing captains, a thick froth of bubbles indicates its presence due to its capability in making soaps and detergents. Glycoside Glycoside have several purposes. It helped the animals and insects to eat the fruit seeds before they are fully grown. It is known for its bitter tasting ND also used for dyeing, foaming, and even in medicines. Flavorings Flavorings are water soluble. It is consists of challenge, flavors, flavors, flannel, anticipation and civilizations.
The contribution of flavorings to the total antioxidant activity of components in food can be very high because daily intake. The high intake Of red wine (and flavorings) by the French might explain why they suffer less from coronary heart disease then other Europeans, although their consumption of cholesterol rich foods is higher (French paradox). Many studies have confirmed that one or two glasses of red nine daily can protect against heart disease. C. Uses of Balloon Vines and its properties 1. The leaves are cooked as spinach 2. Bitter if taken Directly 3.
Anthropologist, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, blood refrigerant, anti- infectious, diuretic, emetic, unmanaged, firebug, laxative, stomach, codifier. 4. Seeds are used in making oil and in making insect repellent. D. Folkloric Uses 1 Leaves are considered anti -? rheumatic externally as Oil. 2. Treatment for common cold, fever, urinary tract infections. 3. For sprains and external wounds. 4. Used for rheumatism, swellings, orchids, and dropsy. . Leaf juice as hair wash. 6. Roots are considered as laxative and emetic. 7. Leaves are used as diuretic and stimulant. 8.
Detection of root and leaves used for rheumatism, nervous diseases, piles, chronic bronchitis, and piths. 9. Roots used as diaphragmatic, diuretic, and apparent. 10. Used as diuretic, stomach, rarefaction, colleague and pectoral. B. Related Literature In Nigeria, M. O Reassess, R. M. O Kayoed, A. E Jibbed stated that the extract of Strophe carcass displayed the potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus erasures, Engineers kangarooed, Pseudonymous reassuring, Escherichia coli, Candida Albanians, and Espadrilles flatus. The researchers prepared ethanol root extracts mol of 95% ethanol.