temperature abovethis transistor-LED arrangement. When the fan

temperature on the LCD. A threshold value of 45ºC isdesigned in the program. If the temperature rises above 45ºC,the buzzer rings.3) Speed Sensor: M0C7811 IR based sensor is used forspeed detection. Here a free reading fan is used. This sensorconsists of a phototransistor and IR LED within the sensor.The LED is always powered. IR emitting phototransistorreceives light and thus it will turn ON. The fan is placed abovethis transistor-LED arrangement. When the fan runs therecomes a shade between the LED and transistor. The fan leafcuts the light emitted by the transistor, such that how muchtimes the fan leaf rotates there will be a shade. The number ofshades is counted and is shown as the speed on the LCDdisplay. When the input is high the output will be lowvoltage. Here the transistor acts as a switch. When there is ashade the output occurs will be high. The output will be pulse.The number of high pulses indicates the speed. The speed iscalculated on the basis of time.4) Fuel Sensor: It is a resistance varying type sensor. IR orcapacitance varying or potential divider sensors can also beused. Here a potentiometer is used to vary the resistance.When the resistance value increases, it indicates there is a risein fuel level. A threshold value of 25% is set as minimum fuellevel of the engine. Whenever the fuel level decreases belowthis level, the buzzer rings and is displayed on the LCD.5) Direction Sensor: HMC5883ICis used for detectingdirection of the aircraft. A magnetic compass is used as thesensor. This is a low voltage operation. It gives three directionoutputs- X, Y and Z. I2C (Inter Integrated Circuit) interface isused for communication. It is a chip based protocol in whichthe values are read out from the chip. This is a framedependent structure. This IC is compatible for battery poweredapplications. The maximum current drawn by the sensorcircuit is 40mA. To control excess current a driver circuit isused. Chip transistor or any other circuit can be used as thedriver circuit.6) Communication: Wireless communication is used in thisproject. I2C and UART protocols are used. I2C is used forlarge scale communication and networking. In thiscommunication data will be secured and single modetransmission takes place. A UART (Universal AsynchronousReceiver/Transmitter) is the microchip with programming thatcontrols a computer’s interface to its attached serial devices3. Specifically, it provides the computer with the RS-232CData Terminal Equipment (DTE ) interface so that it can “talk”to and exchange data with modems and other serial devices.7) LCD Display: A Liquid Crystal Display commonlyabbreviated as LCD is basically a display unit built usingLiquid Crystal technology. When we build real life/real worldelectronics based projects, we need a medium/device todisplay output values and messages. The most basic form ofelectronic display available is 7 segment display – which hasits own limitations. The next best available option is LiquidCrystal Displays which comes in different size specifications.Out of all available LCD modules in market, the mostcommonly used one is 16×2 LCD Module which can display32 ASCII characters in 2 lines (16 characters in 1 line).B. ATC SideThe ATC side consists of RF receiver and PC.Fig.2. Block diagram of ATC side1) RF Modem: RF data modem working at 2.4 GHzfrequency in half duplex mode with automatic switching ofreceive/transmit mode with LED indication. Receives andTransmits serial data of adjustable baud rate of9600/4800/2400/19200 bps at 5V or 3V level for directinterfacing to microcontrollers. This model can work withSunrom model 1252 (USB). RF modem can be used forapplications that need two way wireless data transmission. Itfeatures high data rate and longer transmission distance. Thecommunication protocol is self-controlled and completelytransparent to user interface. The module can be embedded toyour current design so that wireless communication can be setup easily.III. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTIONThe circuit diagram of the cockpit white box is shown inFig. 3.Fig.3. Circuit diagram of cockpit side1) LM35: The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature devices with an output voltage linearly-proportional to the Centigrade temperature. The LM35 device has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from the output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 device does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full ?55°C to 150°C temperature range. Lower cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The low-output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration of the LM35 device makes interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. The device is used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As the LM35 device draws only 60 ?A from the supply, it has very low self-heating of less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 device is rated to operate over a ?55°C to 150°C temperature range, while the LM35C device is rated for a ?40°C to 110°C range (?10° with improved accuracy). The LM35-series devices are available packaged in hermetic TO transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D devices are available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D device is available in an 8-lead surface-mount small-outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.2) MOC7811: MOC7811 is a slotted Opto isolator module, with an IR transmitter & a photodiode mounted on it. Performs Non-Contact Object Sensing. This is normally used as positional sensor switch (limit switch) or as Position Encoder sensors used to find position of the wheel. It consists of IR LED and Photodiode mounted facing each other enclosed in plastic body. When light emitted by the IR LED is blocked because of alternating slots of the encoder disc logic level of the photo diode changes. This change in the logic level can be sensed by the microcontroller or by discrete hardware. This sensor is used to give position feedback to the robot or as Limit switches.3) Arduino: The Arduino Duemilanove (“2009”) is a microcontroller board based on the AT Mega 328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.4) HMC5883: The Honeywell HMC5883 is a surface mount multi-chip module designed for low field magnetic sensing with a digital interface for applications such as low cost compassing and magnetometry. The HMC5883 includes our state of the art, high-resolution HMC118X series magneto-resistive sensors plus Honeywell developed ASIC containing amplification, automatic degaussing strap drivers, offsetcancellation, 12-bit ADC that enables 1° to 2° compass heading accuracy. The I2C serial bus allows for easy interface. The HMC5883 is a 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.9 mm surface mount 16-pin leadless chip carrier (LCC). Applications for the HMC5883 include mobile phones, netbooks, consumer electronics, auto navigation systems, and personal navigation devices.3) Regulator: A clean DC power supply is essential for the operation of most of the circuits. The project requires two voltages, 5v and 3.3v. The 5v is used for LCD, sensor etc and 3.3v is used for PIC RF. For regulated 5v supply we use LM7805 voltage regulator and for 3.3V supply we use LM 1117.4) LCD display: LCD or Liquid Crystal Display is used in this system for display purpose. LCD used here is 16 X 2 LCD. LCD is connected to the PORT D of PIC IC. The module has 8 data lines DB0-DB7 5. In the project we are using 4 data lines DB0-DB3. RS is the Data / Instruction select pin. R / W is the Read / Write select pin. LCD used here is 16 X 2 LCD and it is connected to the PORTD of PIC IC. The LCD module directly connected to the PIC. The resisters R3, R4 and R8 are also connected to the LCD. These resisters are used to control the contrast of the LCD. The LCD uses +5V regulated power supply.5) Buzzer: The buzzers are designed to give audio alarms when faulty conditions arise. The buzzers are used in conjunction with alarm annunciators or controllers. In-built volume control is provided so that the alarm sound can be customized as per requirement. Buzzer has two pins VCC and GND. VCC connected to RB0. And the GND is connected directly.IV. SOFTWARE SECTIONProteus is best simulation software for various designs with microcontroller. It is mainly popular because of availability of almost all microcontrollers in it. So it is a handy tool to test programs and embedded designs for electronics hobbyist. After simulating the circuit in Proteus software PCB design can be directly made. VISUAL BASIC is a high level programming language which evolved from the earlier DOS version called BASIC. BASIC means Beginners’ All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It is a relatively easy programming language to learn. The code looks a lot like English Language. Different software companies produced different versions of BASIC, such as Microsoft QBASIC, QUICKBASIC, GWBASIC, and IBM BASICA and so on. VISUAL BASIC is also a VISUAL and Event-driven Programming Language. In BASIC, programming is done in a text-only environment and the program is executed sequentially. In VB6, programming is done in a graphical environment. In the old BASIC, you have to write program code for each graphical object you wish to display it on screen, including its position and its color. However, In VB6, it just needs to drag and drop any graphical object anywhereon the form, and you can change its properties using the properties window.V. CONDITIONS AND ADVANTAGESThe sensor output at the air traffic control unit and the cockpit unit can be monitored and displayed. This cockpit white box ensures aircraft security. The aircraft unit can be controlled from the air traffic control unit and necessary precautions can be taken. Many other parameters such as humidity, rainfall can be monitored and controlled. Future expansion possible can be made possible by monitoring many other parameters. For the commercial level application it is necessary to purchase frequency bands. The cockpit white box is highly costly when used in commercial applications.VI. APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE SCOPEThe cockpit white box can be widely made used for the military purposes. It can be made used in aircraft navigation system which can ensure more safety. It is also made used in weather monitoring and hence necessary steps can be taken to overcome worst stage of climate. Many parameters such as moisture level, presence of rain, presence of obstacles etc. can be monitored and also can be used commercially by purchasing frequency band. Range can be extended by using frequency bands.VII. CONCLUSION