Terrorism in not something new to us, it is something that has been there throughout history and currently it has become a disaster to not only the third world countries but also the developed countries. There is no international standard definition of terrorism that has been agreed upon to be used in order to define terrorism. Though no precise definition, terrorism is the planned use of terror as a means of causing disturbance and panic to civilians, a targeted group or region in order to achieve goals that are well known by the planners. The goals could be political, religious or personal. With several definitions the characteristic that is similar is that terrorism involves violence.
International terrorism involves those ill- intended activities that go beyond the borders of a state. International terrorism thus can be comprehensively defined as those activities that are fear or panic oriented and dangerous to human lives and that violate the laws of a country or any other country, intentionally to injure the civilian or affect a country’s running of affairs and such can affect many countries. Such can happen in a situation where terrorist gang can plan such activities in one country and use other terrorists in another country to carry out the implementation of such acts to their benefit. The aim of international terrorism is to create panic and weaken the leadership power of a country or even seek revenge and its effects have become a worldwide concern.
With America’s lack of adequate response to terrorism, terrorism has remained a fresh threat to the world. International terrorism has had an impact on public policy making. It has forcibly become an agenda enshrined by most states’ public policies to curb terrorism. The view that America is a superpower not vulnerable to attacks is wrong and America’s worldwide experience has been assumed. Such perceived conditions have not changed and are still controversial in US Counter- terrorism policy (Smith 1990; 40). Public policies have been purposely enlightened with respect to international terrorism. Utility -maximizing models have been applied to put terrorism on the board and give suggestions on public policy responses. Negotiation as a policy has been given a chance; this involves negotiating with terrorists when one has been kidnapped or a country’s vessel has been hijacked.
In some cases terrorism has lead to use of force as a policy and this has lead to massive use of state’s resources like funds, vehicles, machines and even state human resources to end terrorism by conducting seminars on terrorism, use of resources to guard against terrorism and use of resources to fight terrorism. The use of force to respond to terrorism, which could show how America is determined to overcome retaliation policy and it encouraged a decision to use military strength and resources to counter terrorism (Smith 1990; 41). In 1986 America used its military resources and bombed Libyan targets to respond to claims that Gaddafi had sponsored terrorist attacks against Americans.
Terrorists are funded by private organizations and also public sponsors, such funding make the groups tough and hard to dismantle. Despite new laws to curb terrorism, Saudi Arabia’s charitable donations do take place and has become an unregulated way of fundraising in the kingdom (Malone 2005; 105). Such activities have forced States to maximize expenditure on programs to fight terrorism. Such will be used to fight funding of terrorist groups and purchasing weapons and other resources to silence the terrorists.
In America, due to international terrorism, Bush’s policy on terrorism changed. Bush’s stand did not reflect much on public opinion and his policies were not the same as his predecessors’ as far as important aspects of terrorism were concerned (Boulden and Weiss 2004 94). The National Security Strategy of the United Nations gave a statement on efforts to counter Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The statement was to operate under International Law as an operational public policy of freezing emerging insecurity threats (Boulden & Weiss 2004; 94). Such policies were put into place specifically for security purpose.
Terrorism has lead to heavy budgetary costs. Governments have financed some additional expenditure in the defense sector, thereby reducing public and private expenditure on other valuable programs. In the US public expenditure has risen whereby there is identification and financing new methods to ensure safety. Private expenditure is on the rise to have maximum protection against terror through security guards employment for protection. Countries prone to terrorism attacks have had considerable fallen economic and social costs (Weaving and Picciotto 2006 63). Disarmament policy and other programs involving coordinating anti-terrorist activities have been financed to take place.
In conclusion, International terrorism being a global issue of concern has affected public policies of countries and has forced countries to spend public and private funds and other state resources toward combating international terrorism that has severe consequences and if not counter checked on time can lead to massive destruction of once stable states thus total collapse.
Boulden, J. & Weiss, T.G (2004). Terrorism and the UN: before and after September 11, Indiana University Press.
Malone D., (2005). Bin Laden’s Plan: The Project for the New Al Qaeda Century,
Picciotto R. and Weaving R. (2006). Security and development: investing in peace and prosperity, Routledge.
Smith G.D. (1990) Combating terrorism, Taylor and Francis.