The 166 cm; width: cm. Material: Limestone.

The False door described in the following pages is housed inthe EgyptianMuseumin Tahrir Square, it is known in it as (CG 1397) from the publication ofBorchardt,L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches (Ausser den statuen) im Museum vonKairo,vol. I, Berlin, 1937.Theprovenance of this Stela is Saqqara.Dimensions:Height: 166 cm; width: cm.Material:Limestone.Shape:Rectangular False door.Method:incised.

Colours:No traces of colours are found.Thestela is in a good state of preservation, it displays the usual elements ofatypical false door of late old kingdom design. Texts and figures are incised (1).

Theedges of the False door displaying the usual cavetto cornice(2) and isframedon either side by a torus moulding(3) whichrepresent the original fibrousbinding.Thefalse door consists of a lintel above the central niche, window-shutterpanel,drum, upper lintel, two outer jambs and two inner jambs.(1)The incised relief began to be used for decorating the false doors in Saqqaraby the time ofNeuserreat least and gradually became the predominent form by the end of the fifthdynasty.El-Khadragy,M., Two Old Kingdom false doors from Saqqara, in: GM 174, 2000, p. 43.(2)Which is decorated with incised palm leaves.(3)Wiebach, S.

, False Door, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. I,Oxford,2001,p. 499; The false door with torus moulding and corniches appears at Saqqara –wherethisfalse door was discovered – in the early fifth dynasty.Strudwick,N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest Titles andtheirHolders, London, 1985, p.

10; Wiebach, S., Die Ägyptische Scheintür, HÄS 1,Hamburg,1981, p. 134.Theupper lintel is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic horizontalinscription,the lower-framing line of inscriptions delineates the lintel from thejambs.

Eachof the jambs has at the end of its inscriptions a representation of thedeceasedstanding facing towards the central niche, on the outer jambs thedeceasedis representing wearing a shoulder-length wig covering his ear, aceremonialbeard and a pointed kilt, he holds a long staff in one hand and a batoninthe other hand.Whilethe inner jambs display mirror images of the deceased who appears inacorpulent figure showing probably a later phase in his life, he is representedwithshorthair wearing a long skirt and a broad collar or ribbon and his breasts areflabby.Eachof the outer jambs is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic inscription,whilethe left inner jamb is inscribed with three horizontal inscriptionsrepresentingatitle of the deceased and his name, on the other hand the right inner jamb isinscribedwith two vertical inscriptions representing also a title of the deceased andhisname. The drum and the central niche are undecorated(1).

Thelower lintel above the drum has a short hieroglyphic inscription namingatitle of the deceased and his name.Thewindow-shutter panel displays the usual funerary meal with thedeceasedsitting on the left on a law back chair with the back stand visible underthecushion, the rear of the seat ends in the shape of a lotus flower and theseat’slegsare carved to resemble lion legs. He is facing right wearing an attire similartothatworn by the figures on the outer jambs also wearing a shoulder-length wig, a(1)Harpur, Y., Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the Old Kingdom, London and NewYork,1987,p. 48.broadcollar and a knee-length kilt(1), his lefthand clapsed to the chest while hisrighthand extends towards an offering stand(2).

Theoffering stand is supported by a forked pedestal and loaded with breadsliceswhich are simplified in a rectangular shape with the two bottom corners cutawayto resemble the lower parts of reed-shaped bread slices(3).Beneaththe stand to the left rested directly a large nested ewer where theewer’sspout is depicted towards the deceased’s face with basin on a short standandnext to that stand to the left also and infront of the deceased is a largeofferingtablesurmounted with different kinds of bread, a foreleg of beef, a trussed duckanda bundle of lettuce.Abovethe offering table is an ideographic offering list oriented to the lefttowardsthe deceased signifying that it is addressed to him(4).TheText:The Upper Lintel:Htp-di-nsw Inpw tpy Dw.f prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTwAn offering which the king gives and Anubis, who is upon his mountain, avoiceofferingto royal chamberlain(5) mTw.(1)Staehelin, E., Untersuchungen zur agyptischen Tracht im Alten Reich, MÄS 8,Berlin, 1966,pl.

XXI, fig. 10.(2)Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol. V, Cairo, 1944, pp. 171-172.(3)Strudwick, N.

, op. cit., p.

19.(4)Fischer, H., Egyptian Studies II, The Orientation of Hieroglyphs: Reversals,TheMetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York, 1977, pp. 63-65.(5)Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the OldKingdom,vol.II, Oxford, 2000, p.

788:2874.Leftouter jamb:Xry-tp nswt sS a nswt mTwroyal chamberlain (and) scribe of the royal documents(1) mTw.Rightouter jamb:Imy-r wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mTwOverseer of the divisions of divine offerings(2) mTw.(1)Ibid., vol. II, p. 838: 3057.

(2)Jones, D., op.cit., vol. I, p. 97 : 402.Lowerlintel:sAb imy-r sSw mTwJuridical overseer of scribes(1) mTw.

Leftinner jamb:sS a nswt xft-Hr mTwscribe of the royal records in the presence(2) mTw.Rightinner jamb:sAb imy-r sSw mTwJuridical overseer of scribes mTw.(1)Ibid., vol. II, p.

803:2933.(2)Ibid., vol. II, p. 839:3063.

Panel:Htp-di-nsw prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTwAn offering which the king gives, a voice offering to royal chamberlain mTw.Comments:(1) The name of mTw (stela’sowner) is known as a male name according toRankesince the old kingdom, but he mentioned only one example for thisnamewhich is the owner of the present stela(1), but he hadmentioned thatthefeminine form of the name which is mTwt was also afemininename in the old kingdom(2).(2)The stela beared five titles which are Xry-tp nswt, sS a nswt, imy-r wp(w)tHtp(w)t-nTr, sAb imy-r sSw and sS a nswtxft-Hr2.1. Xry-tp nswt:This title is known from the Archaic period(3), it is oftentranslated as royalchamberlain(4), but itwould appear from the continuous usage that the bearer ofthattitle had a close connection with the king as a personal servant for him,sometimesin the capacity of a palatine plenipotentiary(5).(1)PN I, p.

167:16.(2)Ibid., p. 167:18.(3)Kaplony, P., Die Inschriften der Ägyptischen Frühzeit, vol. III, ÄA 8,wiesbaden, 1963, p.

72:267.(4)Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the OldKingdom,vol.II, Oxford, 2000, p. 788:2874.(5)Redford, D., “The false-door of Nefer-shu-ba from Mendes”, in: Zahi Hawass andJenniferwegner(eds.), Millions of Jubilees, studies in Honor of David P.

silverman, CASAE 39,vol.II,p. 128.Goedickereconsidered the reading and meaning of this office, he suggesteditsreading to be tpy-Xrt nswt which means: “one who is upon theroyalproperty”(1), the titleseems to be not a very high rank but is frequently foundamongthe titles of scribes and legal officials(2), whichalready appeared with thepresentstele of MTw, Baud also noted that the presenttitle could be used in avarietyof capacities including juridical(3).Itis likely that it was granted merely for the materials and commodities thatcamewith it(4). Anyway towards the end of the OldKingdom, the title declined initsclassification(5).

2.2.sS a nswt2.3 sS a nswt xft-HrThe title sS a nswt appeared in the middle of the fourthdynasty at Saqqarainthe tomb of isi and in Giza in the tomb of nfr (6) andcontinuous through to theendof the Old Kingdom(7), the holders of that title wereresponsible for writing andandadministration of documents(8).(1)Goedicke, H.

, “Titles for Titles”, in: S. Allam (ed.), Grund und Boden in AltenÄgypten,Tübingen,1994, pp. 227-234.(2)Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The HighestTitles andtheirHolders, London, 1985, p.

310.(3)Baud, M., Famille royale et pouvoir sous l’Ancien Empire égyptien, vol. II,Caire, 1999, p.664.

(4)Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 231, n.21.(5)Posener-Kriéger, P.

, « vous transmettrez vos fonctions à vos enfants … »,CRIPEL 13, 1991,1991,p. 109 (d).(6)Strudwick, N., op. cit., pp.

65-66 (17), pp. 109-110 (84).(7)Ibid., p. 211.(8)Ibid.

, p. 210.TheSecond title is related to the first one, where the element xft-Hr referredtothe presence of the king(1), the twotitles were found four times in the titulariesofimy-r sS a nswt.Thetitle sS a nswt xft-Hr is first attested in the middle orlater of the fifthdynasty,but it became a frequent sixth dynasty title(2).Therewere seventy four Memphite holders for the title sS a nswt whiletherewere only thirty officials held the title sS a nswt xft-Hrfrom which therewereonly seven holders held the two titles(3), one ofthose seven is MTw the ownerofthe present stela.

Themost common honorific title with sS a nswt was rx nswt while with sSa nswt xft-Hr was Xry-tp nswt, while inthe sixth dynasty Xry-tp nswt was morecommonthan rx nswt with sS a nswt, Strudwicknoted that the title sS a nswt xftHr was morecommon in the sixth dynasty than sS a nswt(4).Healso mentioned that the title sS a nswt xft-Hr outranked sS a nswt in thelatersixth dynasty(5).Thuswe can conclude that mTw was first asixth dynasty official from thelatersixth dynasty and he promated from sS a nswt to sS a nswtxft-Hr.(1)Jones, D., op. cit., vol. II, p.

839 :3063.(2)Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.(3)Ibid., p.

211.(4)Ibid., p.

211.(5)Ibid., p. 211, which can be used as a dating criteria for the present stela aswell.2.4 imy-r wp(w)tHtpt-nTrThis title is nowhere associated directly with a temple(1), Baer notedthat theofficewas connected at least once with a royal pyramid(2), although itis held by aHeliopolitanhigh priest(3).Itis worth mentioning that on the walls of the tomb of Iri-n-Axt -discoveredbySelim Hassan- he mentioned the latter titles which are identical to that of mTwwhich are: imy-r wp(w)t Htpt-nTr, sS a nswt, sAb imy-r sSwand Xry-tp nswt (4),whichmeans that these titles were found with each others frequently.Thetitle in question was attested beside the title sS a nswt on a smallobeliskfrom Heliopolis(5), this title concern with thedivisions of offerings and thisofferingscome through serfs, fields, land holders and also funerary priests(6).

(1)Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C Down to the Theban dominationof UpperEgypt,New York, 1968, pp. 66, 222.(2)Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, The Structure of the EgyptianAdministrationinthe fifth and sixth dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p. 250; Jones, D., op.

cit., vol.I, p. 98:404Imy-rwp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mn-anx-Nfr-kA-Ra (pepi II’s pyramid complex).(3)Brovarski, E., “Tempelpersonal I”, in: LÄ VI, p.

391.(4)Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol.

VI, part III, The mastabas of the sixthseason and theirdescription,Cairo, 1950, pp. 9, 11.(5)Daressy, G., La necropole des grands prêtres d’Héliopolis sous l’Ancien Empire,ASAE16,1916, p. 212. (which appeared also on the present stela of MTw).(6)according to the following titles:Imy-rwpt Htp(w)t-nTr m mrt AHtJones, D.

, op. cit., vol. I, p. 99:405.Imy-rwp(w)t xnty(w)-SIbid., p.

99:408.Imy-rwpt Hm(w)-kAFischer, H., op. cit., p. 222.2.

5. sAb imy-r sSwThis title is translated as “juridical overseer of scribes” or in case ofreadingimy-rsS(w) n sAb it is translated as “overseer of scribes of the judiciary”(1).Accordingto Helck, it is probably with these put their bearers asmembersin the legal(2), he also seems justified in hisassumption that the elementsAbserves to define the administrative category of the latter(3). (thewriters in thepresentcare) i.e. the bearers of that title were writers in the court.

Helckalso noted that it is emphatic that sAb alone isn’tan independenttitlebut always found only infront of other titles(4).So,we can conclude from the last title that MTw was overseerof writers orscribesin the court.Dating:As for the date, this false door possesses some later features whichfrequentlyappear on false doors of the end of Old Kingdom particularly thedynasties(VI-VIII)(5).(1)Jones, D., op.

cit., vol. II, p.

803 :2933.(2)Helck, W., Untersuchungen zu den Beamtentiteln des ägyptischen Alten Reiches,Glückstadt,1954,p. 82.(3)Fischer, H., “A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara mastaba of the early Fifthdynasty”, JNES18,1959, p. 265 (14).

(4)Helck, W., op. cit., p.

82.(5)For the false doors criteria of dating, see:Wiesbach,S., Die ägyptische scheintür: Morphologische studien zur Entwicklung undBedeutungder Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.8-10,128-141; Brovarski, E., False Doors & History: the Sixth Dynasty, in: M.Barta (ed.),TheOld Kingdom Art and Archaeology, prague, 2006, pp.

71-118.; Idem, False Doors.The First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom, in: D.p. Silverman, W.K.Simpson,J. Wenger (eds.

), Archaism and Innovation, studies in the culture of MiddleKingdomEgypt, New Haven, 2009, pp. 359-423.(1) TheT-shaped panel which adopted frequently in the Memphite necropolis,Thisform as suggested by Gunn be a rectangular wooden shutter swingingontwo horizontal pivots at the top corners(1).Thisdesign of panels probably started about the mid-sixth dynasty-perhapstheearliest example is that of ©d-ppy the eldestson of the vizier xnty-kAi /ixxi(2).Thisvizier probably out-lived his king Teti and witnessed the early years ofhissuccessor Pepy I(3), that would date the vizier’s son tothe later part ofPepyI’s reign and the early part of that of Pepy II – particularly in the reignofPepy II(4).Thispanel design then became a favourite style and remained in use duringtheend of the Old Kingdom and there after(5).(2)The addition of a torus moulding and cavetto cornice was considered a sixthdynastynorm, contra this date it was very much an indication of theimportanceor the status of the stela’s owner(6), it isperhaps important tonotethat the presence of cornice decoration wasn’t before the late sixthdynastyas it became a norm irrespective to the social status of the stela’sowner(7).(1)Firth, C.

, and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. I, Cairo, 1926, p. 176,n. 6.(2)James, T.

and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30,London, 1953,pl.42.(3)Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The HighestTitles andtheirHolders, Oxford, 1985, pp. 125-126 (109).(4)Ibid., p.

36.(5)Ibid., p. 18.(6)Wiebach, S., Die ägyptische Scheintür: Morphologische studien zur EntwicklungundBedeutungder Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.133-135.(7)Idem, “False Door”, in: D.

Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of AncientEgypt, vol. I,I,Oxford, 2001, p.

500.(3) Theusing of false doors with two jambs and a narrow one with only onecoloumnof inscription is a feature not known before the reign of Pepy II,Despitethis feature was attested in the doors of the viziers ra-wr and ssi -whereeach contained two pairs of jambs- it was a rear feature at that time,whilethe usage of a single coloumn of inscriptions in the jamb wasn’tknownuntil the reign of Pepy II(1), which mightbe due to its affordable costatthe end of the Old Kingdom.(4)The appearance of the loaves on the panel offering table in a level reachedthelevel of the shoulders of the deceased is a feature attested in the fifthdynastybut it was resumed in the sixth dynasty since the reign of Pepi II(2).(5)The feminine form of the name of the stela’s owner was found at Saqqara –thesame necropolis of the present stela- and its owner was dated to the 6thdynasty(3), so themasculine form MTw might be known much earlier or at thethesame time of the feminine form.

(6)The owner of the stela beard the title sS a nswt xft-Hr which is verycommonin the sixth dynasty.(7)The title sS a nswt xft-Hr out ranked sS a nswt in the latersixth dynasty(4),alsoa dating criteria in the sixth dynasty the title Xry-tp nswt was morecommonthan rx-nswt with sS a nswt (5) which appearson the present stela.(8)There is also a parallel false door stela dated to the sixth dynasty in whichtwotitles of the present stela where held by its owner(6).(1)Strudwick, N., op. cit.

, pp. 17, 36.(2)Ibid., p. 20.

(3)Mariette, A., Les Mastabas de l’Ancien Empire, Maspero, G. (ed.), Paris, 1885,p.

402.(4)Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.(5)Ibid.

, p. 211.(6)This false door was published by Ahmed El-sawi, it is located in the Egyptianmuseum (JdE36808),where its owner imm held the titles sS a nswtxft-Hr and sAb imy-r sSw which provealsothat these titles were common in the sixth dynasty, cf. El-Sawi, A., Three OldKingdomstelaefrom the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, ASAE 70, 1987, pp. 68, 69.

Iconographicfeatures of dating:(1) The appearance of a limited space between the seated figure of thedeceasedandthe back of the chair on the panel, is an iconographic feature firstappearedin the reliefs of Ibi at Deir el-Gebrawi(1), who isdated according toBearto the early of Pepi II (V I D)(2), and wasused frequently there afterparticularlyin the art of provinces(3). So it isprobably that this featurebecamefrequent from the early of Pepy II or at least the middle of his reignandthere after spread all over Egypt Including Saqqara.(2)The simplified shape of the bread slices was perhaps favored as a rapid andeasyway of representing them(4) in the laterpart of the Old Kingdom.

(1)Davies, N. de G., Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi,vol. I, ASE 11, London, 1902,pls.

6, 8-9,12,19.(2)Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, the structure of the EgyptianAdministration intheFifth and Sixth Dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p.

288 (32); Kanawati, N., TheEgyptianAdministrationin the Old Kingdom, Warminster, 1977, p. 51.(3)it appeared in:- Dendera: cf.

,Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C. down to the Thebandominationof Upper Egypt, New York, 1968, pls.

XXIV, XXV-XXVIII.- Naqada: cf.,Idem, Inscriptions from the Coptite Nome Dynasties VI-XI, Rome, 1964, pls.

XII,XXI, XIII, XXX.- Hagarsa: cf.,Kanawati, N., The Tombs of El-Hagarsa, vol. III, Sydney, 1995, pl. 41.- Busiris: cf.

,Fischer, H., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta, MMJ11,1976, figs. 8-9.- Naga-ed-Der:cf., Dunham, D., Naga-ed-Dêr stelae of the First Intermediate Period,London,1937, pls. XI (2), XXII (1).

(4)This simplified shape of the bread slices probably first appeared as unfinishedrelief, whendealingabout its first occurrence, there were two opinions, the first one claims thatthissimplifiedform of bread slices first appeared on the false door of the vizier iHy from Unascemetery.(Strudwick,N., op.

cit., p. 63 (15)).Whileothers claim that the earliest occurrence of that feature is that of queen Iput(Firth,C. and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. II, Cairo, 1926, pl. 55,1)Whowas the wife of king Teti and mother of his successor Pepi I, also daughter ofkingUnas.

(Seipel,W., “I put I”, LÄ III, p. 176).

Anyway,This rectangular bread-like shape was frequently in use from then by Artists asasimpletechnique for producing bread slices above the offering table.Cf.,Jéquier, G., La Pyramide d’Oudjebten, Cairo, 1928, p. 30, fig. 37 ; Borchardt,L.

,Denkmälerdes Alten Reiches, vol. I, Berlin, 1937, p. 147 (CG 1458); Abdalla, A., TheCenotaphof the Sekwashket family from Saqqara, JEA 78, 1992, p.

107.(3) Thedeceased appeared on the inner Jambs of the false door in the corpulentormature representation which is an artistic feature appeared frequentlyfromthe second half of the sixth dynasty(1).(4)Another dating criteria is the length of the skirt worn by the corpulent figureofthe deceased and the placing of the waist, navel and the buttocks higheronthe figure points to the Late Old Kingdom(2).(5)The deceased is represented on the panel sitting on a low back chair wherethechair’s leg imitates those of a lion which is a feature infrequent for nonroyalreliefs of the fourth dynasty(3), but itbecame much more frequent onthosereliefs dating to the end of the fifth dynasty(4) and are quitecommon onthoseof the sixth dynasty(5).(6)The wig worn by the deceased on the panel and the outer jambs, whichcoversthe ears, this type of wig is a characteristic feature of the Second OldKingdomStyle(6).(1)Fischer, H.

, A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara Mastaba of the early FifthDynasty, JNES 18,1959,pp. 245-246; Idem., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta,MMJ11,1976, p. 14, n. 51; Harpur, Y.

, Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the OldKingdom,London,1987, pp. 131-133, tb.6.9.(2)Fischer, H.

, op. cit., JNES 18, 1959, pp. 245-246, fig. 10e.(3)Reisner, G., A History of the Giza Necropolis, vol.

I, Cambridge, 1942, pls. 18(a, b), 39 (a),40(b).(4)Davies, N. de G., The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, part II,ASE 9,London,1901, pls. 13, 14, 24, 34; Paget, R. and Pirie, A., The Tomb of Ptah-hetep, London,1898,pls.

34-35, 38, 39.(5)The mastabas of Qar and Idu at Giza, Simpson, W.K. and Dunham, D., The Mastabasof QarandIdu, G 7101 and 7102, Boston, 1976, pls. VII c, XIV a, XXVI b, XXVI b, XXIX d,figs.20,23.Themastaba of Khentika at Saqqara, James, T.

and Apted, M., The Mastaba ofKhentikacalledIkhekhi, ASE 30, London, 1953, passim; the mastaba of Mereruka at Saqqara,Duell, al., The Mastaba of Mereruka, part I, Chicago, 1938, pls. 57, 78, 88, 96;Fischer,H., Varia Nova, New York, 1996, p. 146.

(6)Brovarski, E., A Second Style in Egyptian Relief of the Old Kingdom, in: S.E.

ThompsonandP. Der Manuelian (eds.), Egypt and beyond: Essays presented to Leonard H.

Lesko,Brown,2008, p. 52, fig. 1, pl. 1; p. 55, fig. 2; pp.

83-84.PaleographicalFeatures of dating:(1) The position of the Htp sign afterthe nsw-sign is typical of the Htpdi-nsw formula usedduring the Old Kingdom(1).(2)The classic arrangement writing of with elongated bread istypicalof Late Old Kingdom(2).(3)The appearance of the beer jar determinative without handles is a Late OldKingdomfeature but it became a standard linguistic feature of theHerakleapolitanPeriod(3).(4)The writing of the older form of Anubis on a stand in place of orisattested in the early sixth dynasty(4) and becamefrequent in the reign ofPepyII(5).Fromthe previous, I am inclined to date this false door by the sixth dynastyparticularlythe reign of Pepy II or slightly later contra Borchardt who dated thisstelaby the Middle Kingdom(6).(1)Lapp, G.

, Die Opferformel des Alten Reiches, SDAIK 21, Mainz, 1986, p. 1,However, thisarrangementis typical of ninth dynasty at Naga-ed-Der, Brovarski, E., The inscribedMaterialofthe First Intermediate Period from Naga-ed-Der, vol. I, Ann Arbor, 1989, p.209. So itmayappeared in the Memphite necropolis before its appearance in the provinces.(2)Fischer, H.

, Dendera in the Third Millennium B. C. down to the Thebandomination of UpperEgypt,New York, 1968, p. 84 (14).(3)Probably the earlier example of that writing is derived from the hieraticdocuments,Goedicke,H., Old Hieratic Paleography, Baltimore, 1988, p.

46 a-b (w22); Daoud, K.,Corpusof inscriptions of the Herakleopolitan Period from the Memphite Necropolis,Oxford,2005,p. 98.(4)Cf.

, James.T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30,London,1953,pls. 7, 13.(5)Davies, N.

de G., The Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi, vol. I, ASE 11, 1902, pl.18; vol. II,ASE12, 1902, pls. 8, 12, 21; Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.

C.,pl. VIII (onthestela of wti which dated to the end of the sixthdynasty).(6)Borchardt, L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches im Museum von Kairo, vol.

I, Berlin,1937,p.56.