GoghCH 20 – The 18th & 19th Centuries: Six main movements: Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, (The Academy), Realism, Impressionism (Macchiaioli) & Postimpressionism Rococo is a unique style occurring toward the end of the Baroque period. It is a much more ornate style that shows sweetness, gaiety, and light; painterly and pastel features. It is chiefly characterized by the representation of the leisurely activities of upper class society by a frivolous choice of themes.
Rococo is derived from the French term rocaille, which refers to small stones and shells that decorate the interior spaces of grottos & cause a crusty and heavily decorative appearance. The Baroque style was in some ways eroticized and embellished to become Rococo. The death of King Louis XIV ushered in a new thought process in the world of art, through society women with power, such as Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV. These women held salons, or social events, in many cases exhibitions of various artists’ work. ARTISTS Francois Boucher was a favorite painter of Mme. de Pompadour.
Jean-Honore Fragonard was a famous artist of the movement. Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun was a prolific portrait painter of the time (Queen Marie Antoinette, etc. ) Neoclassicism was opposed to the Rococo style of art. neo = new, classicism = reference to Classical period of Ancient Greece & Rome. The period was also fueled by the archaeological discoveries of Greece & Rome of the time. Characteristics of Neoclassical Art: •Strong sculptural lines/renderings of architecture •Subdued palette (less intense color, not “bright”) •Planar recession (recession in space by the use of planes: fore-, middle- & background) vs.
Linear recession (what was used during the Renaissance: one-point perspective) •Was inspired by the French Revolution and intended to heighten moral standards •Art characterized by a restraint of emotion, purity of form, and subjects that inspired morality. ARTISTS Jacques-Louis David: The official painter of the French Revolution. Angelica Kaufmann: Responsible for spreading the Neoclassical style to England. Known for portraiture, history painting and narrative works. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres: Mannerist influence on Neoclassicism. Romanticism also reflected the revolutionary spirit of the times.
Characteristics of 19th century Romanticism: • Extremes of emotion •Virtuoso brushwork •A brighter color palette •Themes: nature as unpredictable and uncontrollable & allegory: a symbolical narrative or treatment of one subject under the appearance of another. ARTISTS Francisco Goya y Lucientes was born in Spain. He is best known for his works of political satire and condemnations of war. Goya heightens emotion by the use of acerbic tones and strong chiaroscuro. Theodore Gericault was a liberal against the monarchy. He used a strong palette.
He carefully planned then constructed his canvasses through the use of emotional, figurative and allegorical elements. When did “Modern Art” begin? 1) 1776/1789 American and French Revolutions? New ideas about the way people ought to be governed – “Modern” ways of thinking. 2) 1814 Goya’s painting the Third of May, 1808? Political satire, condemnation of war – use of acid, nonrealistic colors to depict unnatural human acts, Painterly/looser brushwork. 3) 1863 Landmark exhibition in Paris? Salon des Refuses. (The Academy): Although very popular during this time Academic Painting had the least influence on the development of modern art.
The Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (1648) in Paris set up rules of style and subject matter that were considered appropriate. L’Academie had very stern and strict rules for what was “acceptable” in the creation of art. Academic Art is characterized by artistic conventions set by the members of the French Academy ARTISTS Adolphe William Bouguereau Gerome Realism: Modern Realist artists were IN OPPOSITION to Academic art (The Academy) on 2 levels: 1) The subject matter didn’t show life as it really, truly was for the majority of people. ) The way in which these things were rendered didn’t resemble real life. Artists had begun to paint things “realistically, however Realists want to paint with “realism”. The realist painters wanted to paint the world and events how they “really were”= Optically – depicting something as you truly see it. They did not want to paint like the Academy = Conceptually – depicting something as you think it is or based on how you think it should appear. The artists of the Realist movement chose to represent subjects evident in everyday life with pigments/colors that highlighted these events.
ARTISTS Eugene Delacroix: painted directly on the canvas without doing sketches beforehand. He thought canvases should be constructed from color. He painted imagery in favor of revolution for the people against Napoleon. Gustav Courbet: Considered the Father of Realism. It is also said that Courbet’s work foreshadowed the Impressionist movement due to the painterly approach. Honore Daumier: Most concerned with bring the plight of the masses to light. He used a sort of caricature-style to give weight/meaning to his theme. Rosa Bonheur: One of the most successful artists of the 19th C.
She painted mainly animals in daily settings with a great degree of realism, while showing motion. Edouard Manet: most responsible for changing the course of the history of painting. He was the most important influence on the French Impressionism, which came after Realism. 1. Why was Manet’s painting Dejeuner sur l’herbe so controversial? The painting depicts the juxtaposition of a female nude and a scantily dressed female bather on a picnic with two fully dressed men in a rural setting. Rejected by the Academy jury of 1863, Manet and other realist painters exhibited at the “Salon des Refuses” or exhibit of the refused. . Why is this painting “realist”? It is not a realist painting in the social or political sense of Daumier, but it is a statement in favor of the artist’s individual freedom. The shock value of a nude woman casually lunching with two fully dressed men, which was an affront to the propriety of the time (just like the affront ; shock caused by paintings of the poor, war and death of the other realist works), was accentuated by the familiarity of the figures (known women, Manet’s wife ; friend). 3. Why was this painting so important?
The roughly painted background lacks depth, the woman bather seems to “float” giving the viewer the impression that the scene is not taking place outdoors, but in a studio. This impression is reinforced by the use of broad “photographic” light, which casts almost no shadows. 4. Why is Manet so important? Manet was an analytic painter, his work helped to bridge realism and impressionism with a new freedom to paint what he saw in a very expressive way that was not complying with the rules of the Academy (strict rules on subject matter, technique in detail, etc. ). He chose to paint what he wanted as he wanted it to be seen.
He concentrates on creating a work of art from an individual “new” perspective. Impressionism rejected many styles of art that preceded it. Impressionists had common ideas, but their styles differed. Characteristics of Impressionism: •Advocated painting outside or en plein air. •Chose subjects found in nature. •Studied the effects of atmosphere and light on people and objects. •Through investigation, impressionists arrived at an awareness of certain visual phenomena (with light). •Technical discoveries were made from these revelations; they produced atmospheric paintings. •They were also influenced by photography. ARTISTS
Claude Monet * plein air painting * concentrated on lighting changes due to time of day* * loose brushstroke LOCAL COLOR = The actual color of an object or surface, unaffected by shadow coloring, light quality or other factors. *OPTICAL COLOR = Apparent rather than actual color mixture, produced by interspersing brush strokes or dots of color instead of physically mixing them. The implied mixing occurs in the eye of the viewer and produces a lively color sensation. Pierre-Auguste Renoir * work often containing figures under play of light * subdued style emphasized form, line and volume rather than brushstroke/color Berthe Morisot Unlike most of the other impressionists, who were then intensely engaged in optical experiments with color, Morisot took a more conservative approach. •Carefully composed, brightly hued canvases are often studies of women, either out-of-doors or in domestic settings. •First woman to join the circle of the French impressionist painters. •Sister-in-law to Edouard Manet. Edgar Degas (Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas) * did not attempt to capture the moment in a quick stroke * capture fleeting movement in its countless nuances * fast-moving city life of Paris: ballet, theatre, circus, racetrack, and cafes * awkward moment photography as an influence Macchiaioli (Italian Impressionism) •The movement actually preceded the Impressionists. • Areas of light and shadow, or macchie (literally patches or spots) were considered the chief components of a work of art. •The movement grew from a small group of idealistic artists (who were against academic art, but who admired Renaissance masters Rembrandt, Tintoretto, Caravaggio), many of whom had been revolutionaries in the uprisings of 1848. In the late 1850s, the artists met regularly at the Caffe Michelangiolo in Florence to discuss art and politics. Active in Tuscany, they did much of their painting outdoors (plein air) in order to capture natural light, shade, and color. The goal was to translate the harsh contrasts of the Tuscan sunlight and shadow by using a simple patchwork of lights and darks in a loose brushwork. Artists: Giovanni Fattori, Silvestro Lega, Giuseppe de Nittis, Raffaelo Sernesi and Telemaco Signorini Postimpressionism rejected Impressionism. Postimpressionists’ ideals were similar, but their styles and techniques were very different. Two groups of Postimpressionists: 1. A systematic approach to composition, brushwork and color.
Georges Seurat: Pointillism – systematic color theory (system of closely painted dots or dabs of complimentary [opposite] colors of paint that result in an “energy” or “movement” within the painting). AND Paul Cezanne: Started abstraction (simplification of forms to shapes), most significant was his collapsing of space. 2. An approach that used more texture in the brushwork, coordinated line and color with symbolism and emotion. Vincent van Gogh: impasto (extremely thick) application of paint applied in a series of swirling strokes, he painted the world how he “wanted” to see it.
Paul Gauguin: his main contribution to the history of painting was his use of intensified color used in unusual ways. AND Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: photographic views of the subject (poster-like dance hall imagery) and unusual color. Georges Seurat – Started Pointillism. Paul Cezanne – Started abstraction. – Most significant was his collapsing of space. (Influenced Cubism) Vincent van Gogh – Most significant was his swirling impasto application of paint. – Work notable for its rough beauty and emotional honesty. – Effect of luminosity (glowing) achieved by use of contrasting bold colors and tones.
Paul Gauguin – Biggest contribution was his use of intensified color and symbolism. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – His art subject matter was inseparable from his legendary life in clubs and cafes. – Major contribution was his posters that promoted Montmartre entertainers as celebrities which helped to elevate lithograph to high art. Possible Slides for Chapter 20: 1)JEAN-HONORE FRAGONARD. Happy Accidents of the Swing (1767 Rococo). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Roc ; Neo, Slide 8) 2)JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID. The Oath of the Horatii (1784 Neoclassical). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Roc ; Neo, Slide 16) 3)JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID.
The Death of Marat (1793 Neoclassical). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Roc ; Neo, Slide 17) 4)DOMINIQUE INGRES. Grande Odalisque (1814 Neoclassical/Mannerist). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Roc ; Neo, Slide 18) 5)FRANCISCO GOYA Y LUCIENTES. Third of May(1814 Romanticism). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Rom ; Real, Slide 6) 6)THEODORE GERICAULT. Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819 Romanticism). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Rom ; Real, Slide 9) 7)EUGENE DELACROIX. Liberty Leading the People (1830 Realism). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Rom ; Real, Slide 19) 8)GUSTAVE COURBET. The Stone Breakers, (18 Realism).
Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Rom ; Real, Slide 25) 9)EDOUARD MANET. Dejeuner sur l’herbe (1863 Realism/Important, Why? ). (CH 20 Rom ; Real, Slide 32-34) 10)CLAUDE MONET. Impression: Sunrise (1872 Impressionism). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Imp ; Postimp, Slide 6) 11)CLAUDE MONET. San Giorgio Maggiore Venice at Twilight (1908 Imp’m) Oil on canvas (CH 20 Imp ; Postimp, Slide12) 12)EDGAR DEGAS, The Glass of Absinthe (1876 Impressionism). Oil on canvas. (CH 20 Imp ; Postimp, Slide 26) 13)VINCENT VAN GOGH. Cafe Terrace at Night, (1888 Postimpressionism)(CH 20 Imp ; Postimp, Slide 49) 14)PAUL