The (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square

The pressure inside the cabin is technicallyreferred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or morecommonly as the cabin altitude. This is defined as the equivalentaltitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressureaccording to a standardatmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere.

Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have thepressure found at mean sea level, which is taken to be 101.325 kilopascals(14.696 psi).3Russian engineers used an air-like nitrogen/oxygen mixture, kept at acabin altitude near zero at all times, in their 1961 Vostok, 1964 Voskhod, and 1967 to present Soyuz spacecraft.18 This requires aheavier space vehicle design, because the spacecraft cabin structure mustwithstand the stress of 14.7 pounds per square inch (1 bar) against the vacuumof space, and also because an inert nitrogen mass must be carried.

Care mustalso be taken to avoid decompression sickness when cosmonauts perform extravehicular activity, as current soft space suits are pressurizedwith pure oxygen at relatively low pressure in order to provide reasonableflexibility.19By contrast, the United States used a pure oxygen atmosphere for its1961 Mercury, 1965 Gemini, and 1967 Apollo spacecraft, mainly in order to avoiddecompression sickness.2021 Mercury used acabin altitude of 24,800 feet (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square inch(0.38 bar));22 Gemini used analtitude of 25,700 feet (7,800 m) (5.3 psi (0.37 bar));23 and Apollo used27,000 feet (8,200 m) (5.0 psi (0.

34 bar))24 in space. Thisallowed for a lighter space vehicle design. Before launch, the pressure waskept at slightly higher than sea level at a constant 5.3 psi(0.37 bar) above ambient for Gemini, and 2 psi (0.14 bar) abovesea level at launch for Apollo), and transitioned to the space cabin altitudeduring ascent. However, the high pressure pure oxygen atmosphere proved to be afatal fire hazard in Apollo, contributing to the deaths of the entire crewof Apollo 1 during a 1967ground test.

After this, NASA revised its procedure to use a40% nitrogen/60% oxygen mix at zero cabin altitude at launch, but kept thelow-pressure pure oxygen in space  Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicatesthe natural process of photosynthesis, a process thatconverts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation ofa natural process it is bio mimetic. The term,artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme forcapturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel(a solar fuel). Photo catalytic water splitting converts waterinto hydrogen ions andoxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is anotherprocess studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation.Research of this topic includes the design and assembly of devices forthe direct production of solar fuels, photo electrochemistry and its application in fuelcells, and the engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms formicrobial biofuel and bio hydrogen production fromsunlight.An airlock is a device which permits the passage ofpeople and objects between a pressure vessel and itssurroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vesseland loss of air from it. Thelock consists of a small chamber with two airtight doors in series whichdo not open simultaneously.

An airlock may be used for passage between environments of differentgases rather than different pressures, to minimize or prevent the gases frommixing.An airlock may also be used underwater to allow passage between an airenvironment in a pressure vessel and the water environment outside, in whichcase the airlock can contain air or water. This is called a floodableairlock or an underwater airlock, and is used to preventwater from entering a submersible vessel oran underwater Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle. The laboratory comprisedmultiple components, including a pressurized module, an unpressurized carrierand other related hardware housed in the Shuttle’s cargo bay. The There was avariety of Spacelab-associated hardware, so a distinction can be made betweenthe major Spacelab program missions with European scientists running missionsin the Spacelab habitable module, missions running other Spacelab hardwareexperiments, and other STS missions that used some component of Spacelabhardware. There is some variation in counts of Spacelab missions, in partbecause there were different types of Spacelab missions with a large range inthe amount of Spacelab hardware flown and the nature of each mission.

Therewere at least 22 major Spacelab missions between 1983 and 1998, and Spacelabhardware was used on a number other missions, with some of the Spacelab palletsbeing flown as late as 2008.1components were arranged invarious configurations to meet the needs of each spaceflight. In August1973, NASA and ESRO (now European Space Agency or ESA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding tobuild a science laboratory for use on Space Shuttle flights.2 Construction ofSpacelab was started in 1974 by the ERNO(subsidiary of VFW-Fokker GmbH, after merger with MBB named MBB/ERNO, andpart of EADS SPACE Transportation since 2003)Morethan 3 billion people across the world are affected by not having access to clean water or proper sanitation, resultingin the death of over 800,000 children each year. Solving this problem isn’t assimple as install sewer or septic systems, as they require more energy andinfrastructure than could be effective maintain in many developing state. Wastefrom the latrines most commonly used in these areas are left untreated andmerely dumped into local rivers and other bodies of water, where it willcontribute to the spread of disease.Thelatest venture from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeks to resolve thisproblem by create a wastewater treatment method that eliminatesdisease-causing sewage from the environment and converts it into clean, drinkingwater.

The steam engine-powered device is called the Omni processor,manufactured by Seattle-based Jonick Bio energy. The Omni processor can convert human wasteinto clean, drinking water in a matter of minutes, while produce energy toincinerate the remain waste solids and leave 260 kilowatts to spare. Theresulting ash does not have an odour and will not contain disease-causingmicrobes.Usingthe waste from 200,000 people, the Omni processor will produce 75,000 litres ofwater per day, enough for 63,000 people. Though there is a deficit insupply and demand, this will be a tremendous relief for people in these areas.This isn’t meant to be strictly charity, but a means of creating self-supportedeconomies.

                      The pressure inside the cabin is technicallyreferred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or morecommonly as the cabin altitude. This is defined as the equivalentaltitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressureaccording to a standardatmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere. Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have thepressure found at mean sea level, which is taken to be 101.325 kilopascals(14.696 psi).

3Russian engineers used an air-like nitrogen/oxygen mixture, kept at acabin altitude near zero at all times, in their 1961 Vostok, 1964 Voskhod, and 1967 to present Soyuz spacecraft.18 This requires aheavier space vehicle design, because the spacecraft cabin structure mustwithstand the stress of 14.7 pounds per square inch (1 bar) against the vacuumof space, and also because an inert nitrogen mass must be carried. Care mustalso be taken to avoid decompression sickness when cosmonauts perform extravehicular activity, as current soft space suits are pressurizedwith pure oxygen at relatively low pressure in order to provide reasonableflexibility.19By contrast, the United States used a pure oxygen atmosphere for its1961 Mercury, 1965 Gemini, and 1967 Apollo spacecraft, mainly in order to avoiddecompression sickness.2021 Mercury used acabin altitude of 24,800 feet (7,600 m) (5.5 pounds per square inch(0.38 bar));22 Gemini used analtitude of 25,700 feet (7,800 m) (5.

3 psi (0.37 bar));23 and Apollo used27,000 feet (8,200 m) (5.0 psi (0.34 bar))24 in space. Thisallowed for a lighter space vehicle design. Before launch, the pressure waskept at slightly higher than sea level at a constant 5.

3 psi(0.37 bar) above ambient for Gemini, and 2 psi (0.14 bar) abovesea level at launch for Apollo), and transitioned to the space cabin altitudeduring ascent. However, the high pressure pure oxygen atmosphere proved to be afatal fire hazard in Apollo, contributing to the deaths of the entire crewof Apollo 1 during a 1967ground test. After this, NASA revised its procedure to use a40% nitrogen/60% oxygen mix at zero cabin altitude at launch, but kept thelow-pressure pure oxygen in space  Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicatesthe natural process of photosynthesis, a process thatconverts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation ofa natural process it is bio mimetic. The term,artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme forcapturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel(a solar fuel).

 Photo catalytic water splitting converts waterinto hydrogen ions andoxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is anotherprocess studied, that replicates natural carbon fixation.Research of this topic includes the design and assembly of devices forthe direct production of solar fuels, photo electrochemistry and its application in fuelcells, and the engineering of enzymes and photoautotrophic microorganisms formicrobial biofuel and bio hydrogen production fromsunlight.An airlock is a device which permits the passage ofpeople and objects between a pressure vessel and itssurroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vesseland loss of air from it. Thelock consists of a small chamber with two airtight doors in series whichdo not open simultaneously.

An airlock may be used for passage between environments of differentgases rather than different pressures, to minimize or prevent the gases frommixing.An airlock may also be used underwater to allow passage between an airenvironment in a pressure vessel and the water environment outside, in whichcase the airlock can contain air or water. This is called a floodableairlock or an underwater airlock, and is used to preventwater from entering a submersible vessel oran underwater Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle. The laboratory comprisedmultiple components, including a pressurized module, an unpressurized carrierand other related hardware housed in the Shuttle’s cargo bay.

The There was avariety of Spacelab-associated hardware, so a distinction can be made betweenthe major Spacelab program missions with European scientists running missionsin the Spacelab habitable module, missions running other Spacelab hardwareexperiments, and other STS missions that used some component of Spacelabhardware. There is some variation in counts of Spacelab missions, in partbecause there were different types of Spacelab missions with a large range inthe amount of Spacelab hardware flown and the nature of each mission. Therewere at least 22 major Spacelab missions between 1983 and 1998, and Spacelabhardware was used on a number other missions, with some of the Spacelab palletsbeing flown as late as 2008.1components were arranged invarious configurations to meet the needs of each spaceflight.

In August1973, NASA and ESRO (now European Space Agency or ESA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding tobuild a science laboratory for use on Space Shuttle flights.2 Construction ofSpacelab was started in 1974 by the ERNO(subsidiary of VFW-Fokker GmbH, after merger with MBB named MBB/ERNO, andpart of EADS SPACE Transportation since 2003)Morethan 3 billion people across the world are affected by not having access to clean water or proper sanitation, resultingin the death of over 800,000 children each year. Solving this problem isn’t assimple as install sewer or septic systems, as they require more energy andinfrastructure than could be effective maintain in many developing state. Wastefrom the latrines most commonly used in these areas are left untreated andmerely dumped into local rivers and other bodies of water, where it willcontribute to the spread of disease.

Thelatest venture from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeks to resolve thisproblem by create a wastewater treatment method that eliminatesdisease-causing sewage from the environment and converts it into clean, drinkingwater. The steam engine-powered device is called the Omni processor,manufactured by Seattle-based Jonick Bio energy. The Omni processor can convert human wasteinto clean, drinking water in a matter of minutes, while produce energy toincinerate the remain waste solids and leave 260 kilowatts to spare.

Theresulting ash does not have an odour and will not contain disease-causingmicrobes.Usingthe waste from 200,000 people, the Omni processor will produce 75,000 litres ofwater per day, enough for 63,000 people. Though there is a deficit insupply and demand, this will be a tremendous relief for people in these areas.

This isn’t meant to be strictly charity, but a means of creating self-supportedeconomies.