The availability of freshwater for human survival.

        The repercussions oil sands have is a growing matter of concernity. The pollution from tar sands industrial activities in northeastern Alberta, Canada is affecting ecosystems and human health (Timoney & Lee, 2009) . The definition of an oil sand is a deposit of bitumen or crude oil made up of water, sand, and bitumen, a heavy and viscous hydrocarbon (Short, Schindler, Hodson, Ma, Kwan,  & Fortin, 2009). The Athabasca oil sands is the second largest reservoir of crude bitumen in the world with a surface area of approximately 100 000 square kilometres (Anderson, Giesy & Wiseman, 2010) causing the most negative effects. The growth of surface and in situ excavating of the Athabasca oil sands is causing expeditive and important degradation of the environment surrounding it. The Athabasca oil sands adulterate the Athabasca river/ Athabasca Peace Delta, atmosphere, and wildlife to a point of no utility, in the worst ways possible.         The Athabasca oil sands progressively harms the Athabasca river and Peace- Athabasca delta in many repugnant manners. Tar sands are using too much freshwater to create crude oil and separate the bitumen from sand and clay, as well as pollute the remaining freshwater. The Peace- Athabasca delta contains the most freshwater in the world, accounting for 3% of the freshwater on earth. Freshwater is essential to human life yet, tar sands are destroying it. Between two to five barrels of water are taken from the Athabasca River for each barrel of bitumen extracted(Raynolds, Severson- Baker,& Woynillowicz, 2005) . With that ratio of production, the amount of freshwater left for humans is unsustainable. Not only is this water used to produce crude oil, it is used to separate bitumen from loam (a mixture of sand and clay).  Also, oil sands pollute the Athabasca river and delta taking away the availability of freshwater for human survival. Since the start of the oil sands process, there has been various spills into the river contaminating it with tailing pond water and oil. Around 1600 cubic metres of tailing ponds toxic water is leaked into the river a day. With all of this contamination to the river and delta there is no safe freshwater to use for beneficial purposes.         Tar sands oil production greatly increases Canada’s contribution to air pollution to a point of no usefulness. They are constantly releasing more chemicals into the world everyday through developing and processing bitumen. The Athabasca oil sands have negatively impacted the atmosphere by burning natural gas, and producing secondary organic aerosols. Making bitumen into synthetic crude requires energy, which is made by burning natural gas. When burning natural gas, it releases monoxide, carbon-dioxide, and other compounds into the atmosphere. These gases move carbon from earth to the atmosphere,contributing to the greenhouse effect. The boreal forest is a major storehouse to carbon products, but, with clearing a lot of it for more oil, the green -house gases emit into the air creating more pollution from the Athabasca oil sands. In addition, other gases are released into the air during the extraction process such as NOx and SOx (Hanania, Stenhouse & Donev, n.d). The Athabasca oil sands is one of the biggest sources of secondary organic aerosols (SOA’s). These SOA’s are created when volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) are revealed to sunshine and react with oxygen and other compounds. SOA’s form with particles to become particulate matter. Particulate matter is linked with many health issues such as, asthma, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer.. Etc. Alberta’s oil sands create 45- 84 tonnes of SOA’s a day. Tar sands is the largest weakness to society.         The Athabasca oil sands is Canada’s greatest flaw. They are constantly damaging many ecosystems, wrecking the wildlife. Oil sands are menacing the fish population, exterminating ducks/birds, and wiping out forest animal communities. The Athabasca river and Peace- Athabasca Delta are consistently being polluted by oil sands causing a decrease in the fish population. Many fish are being found dead and or diseased. This is a concern to the economy and fish eating dwellers. The consumption of fish in which Aboriginals intake is a huge threat due to the fact that many species of fish are being poisoned and killed off. This is an issue not only for economic reasons but for human health. Furthermore, oil sands create a dangerous pollutant- filled reservoir that many birds and or ducks mistake for a landing spot. Thus leading to a variety of bird/duck executions. These pollutant- filled reservoirs are known as “tailing ponds” constructed of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sand and clay in a watery mix. Including all tailing ponds, 220 square kilometres are consumed by them (Hanania, Stenhouse & Donev, n.d). An estimate of 166 million birds over the next 50 years will be killed due to tailing ponds (Block, 2018). This is threatening to any flying species as it would appear as a secure place to land to rest. On top of that, tar sands are planned to be created underneath the boreal forest clearing 3000 square kilometres of it. Much wildlife lives in the boreal forest such as bears, wolves and lynx. Clearing the forest could push ecosystems to its ecological tipping point causing irreversible damage and a decrease of biodiversity. The Athabasca oil sands is a major threat to wildlife sustainability that surround it.         Alberta oil sands are grandly altering the state of those around it. They continuously impair Alberta as a whole. The waters, atmosphere, and wildlife of Athabasca are contaminated by the Athabasca oil sands to a useless condition.