The and low efficiencies of irrigation (Kashkuli

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is local to Africa, and among oilseeds, it is the most noteworthy yielding oil crop, positioning first on the world in oil production, ascending from 49,190,000 tons in the years 2007/2008 to 56,270,000 tons in 2011/2012, trailed by soybeans, which in the years 2011/2012 created 42,910,000 tons of vegetable oil (Green et al., 2013). These resulted in an expansion of the global oil palm planting area from 6 to 16 million hectares between 1990 and 2010, a sector which now accounts for about 10 percent of the world’s permanent cropland. Malaysia and Indonesia have been the epicenter of this dynamic development: in these two countries planted area has increased by 150% and 40%, respectively, over the last decade, and together they currently represent over 80% of the global palm oil production (Pirker et al., 2016).

 

In obtaining a high yield of oil palm in future, care must be taken starting from leaf development until ripening stages to avoid losses number of healthy oil palm. Water, sunlight, fertilizer, and types of soil are the essential things to grow oil palm. To develop a sustainable agriculture, we must put into concerns about water use efficiency. Water and types of soil are related to each other. Sandy soils as compared to different soils have very low of water holding capacity thus it requires continues irrigation applications leading to use a tremendous amount of water that can cause losses and low efficiencies of irrigation (Kashkuli & Zohrabi, 2013). Finding by Kashkuli and Zohrabi (2013) also showed leaching of salts and chemical fertilizers also can be one of the problems that related to these types of soils. Moreover, the severe issues because of compromise agriculture farming are degradation of land whether arid or semi-arid and dry areas and lack of water (Vundavalli et al., 2015).

 

However, there is always having a solution to the problems. The answer to these issues is by the use of synthetic materials, Super Absorbent Polymers (SAPs) which have excellent water absorption even under high pressure or temperature (Vundavalli et al., 2015) According to Sánchez-Orozco et al. (2017) the mixture of sandy soils and SAPs was able to lose water more slowly. SAP was selected because it helps sandy soil to increase the water-holding capacity and nutrient retention, low irrigation frequency, compaction tendency and water run-off (Montesano et al., 2015).

 

Liao et al. (2016) had reported that when the SAP applied to soil, the SAP rapidly absorbs the water in the land, which reduces profound seepage loss and then later, water is released gradually to the plants. This process improves the efficiency of soil water use.