The Art of Public Speaking Chapter Study Notes Essay

Power of Public Speaking Greek Percales: one who forms a judgment on any point but cannot explain it clearly might as well never had thought at all on the subject” Public speaking is consistently rated high on employers lists The Tradition of Public Speaking Historical people who used speaking effectively Similarities and Differences in Public Speaking and Daily Conversation Similarities Organizing your thoughts logically Tailoring your message to your audience Telling a story for maximum impact- building up your story Adapting to listener feedback

Differences Speaking to groups is very highly structured Strict time restrictions Most don’t allow for question interruptions (must plan for and anticipate questions that might arise in listeners mind) Public Speaking requires more formal language No slang jargon bad grammar or curse words Highly structured Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery Proper posture, no visualizing fillers for times ( uh, rum, eh) and avoid distracting mannerisms (hand talking) and verbal habits Developing confidence: In your speech class 40 % of people said public speaking was worst fear

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Everyone gets nervous at speaking, great speakers use this to help their speech Focus on transforming nervousness to one of positive nervousness ( controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for their presentation) Tricks to turn nervousness from negative to positive Get experience in speaking- the more you do it the less scary it will be because its not new and threatening Be prepared- 1- hours for every minute spoken Pick topics that are close to you Think Positively: 5 positive thoughts for every negative one Visualize you speak kiwi Eng well You don’t look as nervous as you think Public Speaking and Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking- focused organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence and the difference between fact and opinion The Speech Communication Process Speak Kerr Be enthusiastic for people to be engaged in your speech Message Have and intended message that will be actually be communicated Keep a narrowed topic Be aware of the message you are sending with your voice, appearance, gestures, facial expressions and eye contact. Don’t let your non verbal cues distract from your intended message Channel- the means by which a message is communicated by

Listener-person receiving spoken messages Frame of reference- the total of the listeners knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes Because the speaker and listener will never have the same meaning of a speech ITIL carry a different meaning for each of them Feedback- messages sent for listener to speaker Interference- anything impeding the communication of the message External- outside distracting noises or situations Internal- distractions coming from the inside Of a listener Situation-time and place communication is going down Tailoring a speech to the context of the event (graduation, funeral, church)

Public Speaking in a Multicultural World Language is the biggest barrier be;.NET difference in cultures Anthropocentric- belief that ones own culture is superior Chapter 2: Ethics and Public Speaking The Importance of ethics Guidelines for ethical speaking Make sure goals are ethically sound Just because your ethical background makes you for an issue someone who makes a decision against you based on their ethics doesn’t make them wrong Be fully prepared for a speech Be prepared because you not only was your time if you speak badly but you waste the individuals in the audiences’ times as well.

Be Honest Hiding the truth to protect the vast community isn’t unethical but lying to protect yourself is Don’t juggle statistics, quote auto context, misrepresenting sources, painting tentative findings as finite, citing unique situations as normal representation or substitute innuendo and half-truths for proof Avoid Name calling and abusive language Name calling- the use of stereotypical labels meant to degrade and euthanize and silence opposing sides. Sing such language is a destructive social force and will also make your audience doubt you entire speech and message plagiarism- passing off someone else’s work as your own without reedit Global Plagiarism- copying an entire document or speech verbatim Patchwork Plagiarism- piecing together more than one document and passing of as your own.

Can have some transitions but a vast majority is completely copied Incremental Plagiarism- failing to give credit to an author of a quotation or paraphrase of ideas Ways to stop accidental plagiarism Take note of title of document Group/person responsible for the document Date document was last updated Date site was accessed Guidelines for ethical listening Be courteous and attentive Avoid prejudging the speaker Maintain free and open expression of ideas

Chapter 3: Listening Listening is Important Listening- pay close attention to and making sense of what we hear Good listening improves efficient, sales, customer satisfaction and employee morale Effective listening correlates to higher grades Listening and Critical Thinking Types of listeners Appreciative listening- listening for pleasure or enjoyment Music movies comedy Empathic listening- listening to provide emotional support for a speaker Friends, family, psychiatrist Comprehensive listening- listening to understand the message of a speaker Class room lecture, listening to directions

Critical listening- listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejoicing it Sales pitch, campaign speeches, sermons Four Causes of Poor Listening Not Concentrating Letting your mind wander and not focus on what is being said Listening too hard Trying to remember insignificant amounts of information verses the speakers main points Jumping to conclusions Instead of waiting for answers just assuming the worst and going with it Marking a speakers message as unimportant before even giving them a chance Focusing on delivery and personal appearance How to become a better Listener

Take Listening Seriously Be an Active Listener Give your undivided attention to the speaker to genuine Nell try and understand their point of view Resist distractions Try anticipate what the speaker might say Review what the speaker has already said Don’t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery Suspend judgment Until you hear the entire speech Set aside your own prejudices, frames of reference and desires to fully appreciate what the speaker is trying to get across A closed mind is an empty mind Focus your Listening Listen for Main Points Listen for evidence Matched up with the main points to support them

Questions to ask about evidence Is it accurate? Is it taken from objective sources? Is it relevant to the speaker’s claims? Is it sufficient to support the speaker’s point? Listen for technique Take note of any speakers techniques of delivering the speech to better your own speech techniques Developing good note taking skills Focus on important main points The key word outline- outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form Chapter.