The Bauhaus style was developed after the First World War by the German architect and designer Walter Gropius in Weimar. It was based on the philosophy of gesamtkunstwerk or total work of art. He sought ways to harmonise industrial methods with design for mass production purposes. ‘Bau’ means construction and the desire was to produce radical new forms for modern mass living. The new Bauhaus language utilised the basic geometric forms of the circle and the square.
Artists such as Wassily Kandinsky and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy were early ‘masters’ at the school and their art reflected the new direction of geometrical machine forms. The Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1925 but the Nazis shut down the school in 1932 as they regarded it as Boshevik, Jewish and un-German. It moved to Berlin as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s private school until the Nazis’ accession to national power in 1933 caused it to close for good. Gropius commissioned Graphic Designer Herbert Bayer to design a typeface for all Bauhaus communications including posters.
In 1925 he developed ‘universal’ which was a simple sans-serif font. He felt that not only were serifs unnecessary but there was no need for an upper and lower case for each letter. The bold, heavy modernist sans-serif typeface possesses an industrial glamour. The rigid grid structure font was considered simple, clear and rational. The type could be laid out in various ways. In addition to being horizontal and vertical, text would be placed at angle and wrapped around objects. Modern versions of the font include Blippo, designed by Joe Toaylor for Fotostart in 1969.
ITC Ronda was designed by Herb Lubalin in 1970 and it adds lower case letters. ITC Bauhaus was designed by Ed Benguiat and Victor Caruso in 1975. Bauhaus is frequently used for modern day designs and posters. It is found online and in broadcast images, especially advertising headlines and broadcast programme titles. Its very distinctive appearance also makes it popular as a wordmark, for logo design (Postman Pat) and packaging design. One of the most notable was a print designed for the Obama Presidential Campaign rally held in Berlin.
The monotone strokes and lack of serifs or other adornment make it unsuitable for continual text, although it can be used in presentations and booklets that rely more on graphics than on text. Bauhaus Heavy was originally intended to be a display-only design and was accompanied by Bauhaus Outline. With the advent of digital technology, the Outline version was dropped. Under Adobe’s development, the font family supports ISO-Adobe character set for the PostScript version. In OpenType Std version, it supports Adobe Western 2 character set.
Monotype also has versions that include Cyrillic or Central European characters. The font was also named ‘Geomatric 752’ by Bitsrream, ‘BH’ by Itek. In it’s current exhibition ‘Germany: memories of a nation A 600-year history in objects‘, The British Museum is exhibiting a gate from the Buchenwald Concentration camp. The wrought iron letters used for the motto, ‘Jedem das Seine’ (“To Each His Own”), were designed by Franz Ehrilich, master pupil at Bauhaus Dessau who was a prisoner in the camp. Using the Bauhaus inspired lettering was a subtle protest against his captors.
• Bauhaus refers to the artistic era 1919 1933 in Germany. The basic principles of Bauhaus movement emphasise in the simplicity, functioning, practicality. It focuses in geometrical shapes and color and it declines every aspect of decoration motif. It was first founded from Walter Gropious and influenced the evolution of contemporary art especially in architecture of the 20th century. The name of the school was derived from the German word ‘hausbau’ that means ‘building of a house’.The reason was to have a unified education in art and architecture The basic principles was free spirit and being challenged from the time .
• His vision was to create a new form of building of the future that will combine architecture, sculpture and fine art. Then a great architect followed his work Mies van den Rohe who quoted ‘less is more’ and is the main idea behind the Bauhaus movement.
• In Walter Gropious work the house he built for himself caused a sensation those days in England when it was built in 1938..It was his house until his death in 1969.The concept behind this house is to try to mix up the traditional and modern style of architecture with a mix of materials. He combines wood and brick with glass, plaster and chrome banisters.
• I believe there is not strong connection of the Bauhaus movement with the project I am working with as it referring to the simplicity of objects. Even though the combination of different materials that Walter Gropious uses to built his house reminds me of the difference of old and new buildings in terms of materials which are obvious in the area my project is based in Shoreditch. In term of materials this is not seen only in the area my project is based but its is essential in the device I made. The device is a bag that is made by metal mesh and rough materials in contrast with what is designed to carry which is food. A material delicate and clean.
‘Architecture has, with some difficulty, liberated itself from ornament, but it has not liberated itself from the fear of ornament,” like Summerson observed in 1941.
Adolf Loos is well known for his leading style of 20th-century modern architecture. In the late 1890s, when Art Nouveau was at its peak, Adolf Loos began his practice in architecture but Loos was not affected by the popular Art Nouveau at all. His famous manifesto; “Ornament and Crime” was clearly shown his thought against the conventional architectural wisdom of the 19th century. He claimed that architecture and the applied arts could do without any ornament.
From the fact that he had lived in the United States made his rationalist design theories were strongly influenced by his stay. He admired American works of engineering. His design often included smooth, minimal decorated wall surface, honest and functional, so-called austere.
After I looked at his style, I am fascinated by the simplicity of his exterior designs; facades, flat roofs, white walls, and horizontal windows without any moldings, together with open plans. The simplicity of it simply caught my eyes and made me wonder what is behind the walls.
His early work was done in 1898 for the Goldman and Salatsch haberdashery shop in Vienna, where he applied his design principles and undoubtedly illustrated his skill in articulate space design. The building provides four stories of apartments above the business floors. The business floors were originally a gentlemen’s outfitter, but are now a bank.
The steel concrete construction provides wide structural spans with flexible space use. The facade of the lower stories is quite lavish, chiefly through the rich, green Greek marble.
Despite the simplicity of his exteriors, Loos’ interiors were decorated comfortably, using BEAUTIFUL materials and elegant details. The interiors on the business floors are luxurious through the richness of their materials, contrasting a modern minimalism in the detailing.
To conclude, Loos proposed a strict functionalism, which in turn derived from the rationalism of Otto Wagner and from the theories of the great German architect Gottfred Semper. At the same time Loos also retained the respect for ancient architecture; which expressed in the regular use of classical architectural elements in his architectural designs. His writings and architectural works provided great inspiration to the architects of the following generation.