The Brain Essay

* There are several different systems within the body. I will focus on the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS system is the most important it includes the brain and spinal cord. Many messages are transmitted to the brain through the spinal cord telling the rest of the body what to do both voluntary and involuntary responses. * Our brain is separated into two sections. The brain stem and the cerebral hemispheres. Of these two divisions of the brain it is broken down to five other sections; myelencephalon, metencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon and telencephalon (Pinel, 2011).

The cerebral hemispheres are the biggest and usually shown as a model in a doctor’s office. * It’s the soft gray wrinkle looking stuff. The entire area of the cerebral hemispheres, limbic system and the basal ganglia are all part of the section of the brain called Telencephalon. This area of the brain is responsible for processing sensory data and voluntary movement. * This section is where speaking, learning and problem solving occure. To sum it up, this is the section of the brain where thinking occurs. The cerebral cortex is where language and consciousness take place.

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Telencephalon is the limbic system which is responsible for the management of motivated behaviors. * These behaviors are known as fight or flight, feeding and sexual behaviors. The limbic system is divided up into two cortical structures; the cingulated cortex and the hippocampus including four sub-cortical structures which include the amygdale, the mammillary bodies, the septum and the fornix. The next part of the brain I will cover is the diencephalon. * * * * There are only two parts to this section the thalamus and hypothalamus located within the diencephalon section.

The thalamus has two lobes and is responsible for projecting sensory signals from sensory organs into the sensory cortex. The hypothalamus has three other structures called the optic chiasm which includes the pituitary gland and the mammillary bodies. * This is where the optic nerves from the eye marry into the brain. There are two primary divisions of the mesencephalon which include tectum and tegmentum. Tectum is on the dorsal side of the mesencephalon there are two bumps called the inferior colliculi and superior colliculi. * Inferior olliculi is responsible for auditory function. Superior colliculi is responsible for visual functions. Metencephalon incorporates both of the two bumps and plays a part in the sensorimotor structure. It is a bulge of descending tracts and is part of the cerebellum. The cerebellum has also been called the little brain; it looks just like a little brain next to the real one. * The cerebellum is responsible for our ability to control our movements. The myelencephalon contains tracts that carry messages or signals to the brain and the rest of the body.

This would be known as a communication pathway. * One of the most important rules to follow, should someone want to provide aid to someone in a motor vehicle accident is to hold C-spine. Many people trying to help that are not trained can and have caused major injury, permanent paralysis. * Injury to any part of the spinal cord means there will be no more communication. C-spine injuries are the most devastating of all because the brain can no longer communicate to the body to breathe on its own. A C-spine injury is from the neck down. These patients have to rely on a ventilator to breath. Their lives are cut short secondary to many chronic infections. I am so interested in stem cell research; I believe it could help so many if used for the right reasons. * Many people say it’s playing God; I think maybe they would have a different view if this were their child or one of their family members. Scientific study of the brain is intricate and fascinating to me. Possibly I have developed a few new synapses secondary to writing this paper.

Pinel, J. P. J. (2011). Biopsychology (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.