The containers in the logistic industry. The

The project is
proposed on developing web application used for monitoring, tracking of
containers in the logistic industry. The xChange Solution Gmbh is an online platform for the interchange of empty containers. Online
platform facilitates the redispositioning of containers and allows operators to
manage container imbalances more effectively. The digital end-to-end
transaction platform allows to: gain transparency, stop guessing container availabilities, find new partners, save costs, insure traded Containers, track-and-Trace Containers and easily Interchange


Over the past
few decades trading has increased immensely, its essential to locate the goods
location irrespective of event time stamping  and event status. The main idea is accumulating
various company profiles under a single website for tracking their container availability
using Jsoup, HTML Unit, Selenium webdriver and PhantomJS (Ghostdriver).


Freight forwarding requires on time delivery and navigation in rough
economical environments. The xChange supports logistic companies and operators
to make the most convenient recommendation proposals of their equipment and
find the best logistical solutions possible.




























The Project is based on web-development information system
for the logistics industry (shipping, air freight, truck), which supports the
reposition of equipment (for example, containers balance availability, tracking
container events). The term reposition in this context means the resource
planning of the equipment. Their use should in principle be such that their
repositioning costs per piece are minimal. The challenge is to have equipment
available at exactly the locations where it is needed.

Traditionally, resource planning is based on past values, on the basis of which
the future demand for equipment at a location is forecast. The web application
supports the reposition through bartering on the principle “lend your
unneeded equipment to others or lend you the equipment of others if
necessary”. In this way, the re-dispatching costs of logistics companies
(such as carriers or leasing companies) are reduced and their carbon footprint


Companies today spend billions of dollars annually
on repositioning empty containers, logistics
departments worry about limited visibility, non-predictability and
error-prone processes and staff
members spend countless hours fixing problems and troubleshooting. Collaboration of various companies and
digitization of tracking process makes it easier in locating the equipment
availability. The online platform for one-way container moves makes it more
efficient to use or supply 3rd party container equipment on one-way basis.


Modern equipment shipping celebrated its 62nd year of remembrance in 2018. Nearly from the
primary voyage, use of this technique of
transport for merchandise grew steady and in mere six decades, containerships would carry worthy products shipped
via ocean. The idea
of exploitation some kind of shipping equipment wasn’t novel. Boxes kind of
like fashionable containers had been used for combined rail- and equid transport
in European country as early as 1792. The US Government used tiny standard-sized
containers throughout the Second war, that established a way of quickly
and expeditiously unloading and distributing provided. However, in
1955, Malcom P. McLean, a shipping businessperson from North geographic
region, USA, bought a steamship line with the thought of
transporting entire truck trailers with their loading. He realised it might be abundant, less complicated and faster to possess one equipment that would be raised from a vehicle directly on to a ship.

His ideas were supported
that potentially can
be improved through a system of “Intermodalism”, during which identical equipment, with identical loading, may be transported
with minimum interruption via completely different transport
modes throughout its journey. Containers can be rapt seamlessly
between ships, trucks and trains. this could change the entire logistic method and, eventually, implementing this idea to
a revolution in loading transportation and international trade
over succeeding fifty years.








The conventional sizes of container are set by
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1961.The various
standard sizes are 20 foot, 40 foot, 45 foot, 48 foot and 53 foot for loading,
transporting and unloading goods. The most commonly used  container sizes are 20 foot container preferentially
called as a Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU) that meets
the industrial standard for cargo volume and vessel capacity. The 40 foot
length container is equivalent to 2 TEU as it is known as the Forty-foot
Equivalent Unit (FEU) and is the most frequently used container today. Every
container has a unique Unit number of 11 digits where first four digits
consists of alphabets and followed by 7 digits of numbers that can be used by
ship captains, coastguards, carrier staff, dock supervisors, customs officers
and warehouse managers to identify who owns the container.


The typical cycle
of a cargo container (see Figure 1) starts when a shipping company takes an
empty container from a container depot. The empty container is loaded on a
truck and delivered to a shipper, who fills it with the merchandise to be
shipped. Once the container has been filled, the company transports it to its
final destination, as indicated by the consignee to whom the cargo is to be
delivered. Typically the company uses multiple types of transport. The filled
container is transported by truck to the main port, where it will be loaded
onto a vessel. Some shippers fill the container at the port, saving the travel
from the depot to the shipper’s location and then to the port. Once all customs
requirements for the filled container at the port have been satisfied, the
container is then loaded onto a vessel. Once loaded on the vessel, the filled
container is transported to the port at which it is to be unloaded. The
shipping process might also include transshipments, which involve moving the
container from one vessel to another before it reaches its final destination.
The destination port is generally close to the consignee’s location. The filled
container is unloaded from the vessel and is transported by truck, train, or
feeder ship to the consignee’s location, at which the consignee receives the
container, unloads the merchandise, and returns the empty container to the
shipping company, which performs maintenance on the container if it is damaged
or dirty. Consignees sometimes use filled containers as warehouses, extending
the time they keep the containers before returning them to the company, and
paying fines for the late return. We observed four main problems related to
managing the fleet of empty containers. The first problem is an imbalance of
demand among regions. Some regions are net exporters of empty containers; other
regions are net importers. This regional imbalance of supply and demand for
empty containers forces shipping companies to solve this problem by efficiently
repositioning the containers. A company must consider several solutions to
mitigate the imbalance. The most efficient and cost effective solution is to
transport empty containers from surplus to shortage locations using container
ships and other available transport modes. Empty containers represent a firm’s
biggest operational cost after ship fuel; therefore, empty container
repositioning is a key element in a company’s performance.


 The second problem is the multiple sources of
uncertainty. The main source of uncertainty is the demand for empty containers,
which depends on external factors such as market conditions. Thus, a
significant part of the challenge is forecasting the demand for empty
containers at each location, for each equipment type, and for a specific date.
The time and place at which consignees will return empty containers is
uncertain because customers sometimes delay returns. Travel times are also an
element of uncertainty. For example, the travel time from Shanghai, China to
Port Elizabeth, New Jersey in the United States is 37.9 days on average; the
standard deviation is 4.1 days, which represents a coefficient of variation of
11 percent. A final source of uncertainty is the availability of vessel
capacity allocated to move empty containers. Filled containers have a higher
priority over empty containers because paying customers are awaiting them.
Empty containers do not necessarily have a booking waiting for them at their
destination; however, they must eventually be repositioned to reduce the
container imbalance.


 A third major problem relates to handling and
sharing operations information. Tracking worldwide container activities,
compiling the information, and making it available in real time to all decision
makers are technological challenges. In one year, CSAV’s tracking systems
record over 18 million container activities; these systems process over 400,000
transactions daily to update information related to the container activities.
At the beginning of the project, the regional offices used different
information, which they obtained from various sources. This often forced
planners to make decisions using outdated or inaccurate reports. Moreover, data
gathering and processing were done manually, which forced logistics planners to
spend much of their time processing worksheets and database extracts rather
than making decisions and coordinating empty container activities.


The fourth
problem we faced was that the decision makers were distributed throughout the
regional offices. Each regional office can handle intraregional decisions,
which relate to trips between locations within a geographic area. However,
because interregional decisions relate to trips between geographic areas, they
require coordination between the regional offices. Coordinating both
intraregional and interregional decisions in real time for regions with
different cultures and dissimilar operational practices was a problem. Regional
teams were supplemented by over large number of logistics planners worldwide,
who coordinated activities with people both within the company and from
third-party companies. The imbalance, uncertainty, data, and coordination
problems inherent to CSAV’s business shaped the problem. In addition, there are
considerable global operations at thousands of points worldwide, hundreds of
vessels with scheduled itineraries, multiple container types, and hundreds of
thousands of empty container-repositioning routes, this problem is hard to
manage by even the most skilled team of professionals. Moreover, the regional
offices coordinating this operation are in different time zones, adding
complexity to daily planning and decision making.