The Effectiveness Essay

Oil spill over the oceans and seas requires prompt ttentions due to their environmental and economical impacts (Annunciado et al. , 2005). Oil spill is one, if not the biggest reason for the destruction of marine life since people used oil as fuel in on- water voyages. It may happen too often, but when it does, its effects can last for more than decades. In general, wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used, there will be a risk of spillage. Spilled oil has an undesirable taste and odor, affects tourism and economy, and causes severe environmental damages.

The spilled oil eventually enters toxicity components into the human food chains nd affects our health. Therefore, spilled oil causes enormous environmental problems unless it is removed as quickly as possible (Hussein et al. , 2009). In the Philippines, oil spill has also been a problem since the Philippines is surrounded by bodies of water; it is not so surprising that it happens more than once every year. Oil spill is an accident and therefore, it is inevitable and the best way to deal with it is to prevent oil from spreading on a larger area, thus cleaning it as soon as possible.

When scattered, it can cause a tremendous problem to the environment and the effect could be felt not only n water but on land as well. The main problem when Oil spill happens is the clean- up, the method to be used and the length of time for the oil to be removed completely. The most common ways to clean oil spill is through the use of hair and feathers but deemed slow. It can also be treated through chemical means but is very expensive and others are harmful (e. g. in- situ combustion, which is used to combust the spilled oil).

Because of the disadvantages of the methods used for Oil spill cleanup, a call for an intermediate alternative is needed for future oil spills. Rationale of the Study Water pollution due to oil compounds and other organic pollutants is one of the significant environmental problems that we face today, because when these pollutants come in contact with bodies of water, they can deal a lot of damage to the environment, most especially the living organisms in the affected ecosystem.

Ever since oil and oil products have been used as an energy resource and the primary material in many industries, there has been serious risk of oil spill during derivation, transmission or consumption of these compounds usually because of various accidents. Oil pollutant sources re oil tankers which aside from the accidents they may cause, can produce a large amount Of Oily Waste Water in the form Of ballast and bilge Water. Oily bilge water is a combination of hydrocarbons, fresh water and sea water.

The methods commonly used to remove oil involve, physiochemical, chemical, mechanical, and biological materials like skimmers, dispersants, oil booms, and sorbents. The main restriction of some of these techniques is their high cost. Among the many processes employed to remove these pollutants, adsorption has drawn great attention, especially those processes that are low-cost like biomass. The hydrophobic characteristic of biomass along with its high porosity develops a capillary force towards the adsorption of oils.

Vegetal tissues with large surface area and big pores tend to adsorb organic contaminants through chemical and physical mechanisms, similar to charcoal. The vari0US types Of biomasses which are employed as adsorbents include saw dust, rice husk, sea plants, cotton fiber, corncob and coconut fibers. Recently, numerous studies have been done by different researchers on adsorption of crude oil from saline waste water using these adsorbents. The researches demonstrated the potential of these sorbents in crude oil orption.

Sugarcane bagasse (SCB or bagasse as it is generally called), a byproduct of sugar cane processing, is generated in large quantities in sugar- producing countries such as the Philippines, Iran and others. Bagasse has been used as a fuel for the boilers by the sugar factory and as a raw material for the manufacturing of pulp and paper products, various types of building boards, and certain chemicals. The Oil adsorption property Of bagasse is an interesting research subject in an industrial and environmental context.

The SCB sorbent has the characteristics of quick uptake, high capacity, easy dsorption and low cost which is the most important characteristic. The potential of bagasse for crude oil adsorption is compared with some natural and synthetic sorbents. Synthetic sorbents including manmade materials play a significant role in oil spill cleanup. Although the sorption potential of this sorbents is high, they are very costly. But, as mentioned, bagasse is readily available from the sugar cane industry free of cost.

THE PROBLEM Objectives of the Study The main objective of this study is to test if raw sugarcane bagasse is effective and effecient in the sorption of crude oil in saline water. This study also aims to achieve the following specific objectives: a) Find out how much oil does sugarcane bagasse absorbs/ adsorbs. b) Compare the absorptive/ adsorptive property of sugarcane bagasse with common sorbents such as hair, feathers and coconut husk. Hypotheses Statement of the Null Hypotheses a) Sugarcane bagasse is not effective ad effecient in oil spill absorption/ adsorption. ) Sugarcane bagasse sorbs oil but not as effective and efficient as hair, feathers and coconut husk. Statement of the Alternative Hypothesis a) Sugarcane bagasse is effective and efficient in oil spill absorption/ dsorption. b) Sugarcane bagasse is more effective and efficient in oil sorption than hair, feathers and coconut husk. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study aims to prove that sugar cane bagasse is an effective crude oil sorbent. Oil spills, whether on a small or large scale, can have serious effects on the affected ecosystem.

The most affected are the living organisms within the environment. That is why oil spill control has to be immediate and effective. Different methods in containing and cleaning oil spills have been used. Most of these methods involve mechanical, chemical, and biochemical means. These methods although effective, also cost very high. Sugar cane bagasse is low cost for it is a byproduct in sugar cane processing. The study can help in oil spill control by providing a new method that is effective and low-cost.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The study will focus on the sorbing ability of Sugarcane Bagasse, or the by- product fibers Of sugarcane after it is crushed during extraction, its effectiveness, the time it takes for the crude oil to be absorbed or adsorbed completely. The study will only test the raw bagasse on crude oil on saline water because it wants to focus on oil spill happening on ocean and seas. Saline water is also efficient because it less dense compared to tap or fresh water.

DEFINITION OF TERMS Bagasse is fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice. It is used as a biofuel and in the manufacture of pulp and building materials. Crude Oil is A naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits. Crude oil can be refined to produce usable products such as gasoline, diesel and various forms of petrochemicals. Sorb two processes. to gather on a surface either by absorption, adsorption, or acornbination Of the Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Removal of Petroleum Spill in Water by Chitin and Chitosan The study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of adsorption of crude oil spilled in seawater by chitin flakes, chitin powder, chitosan flakes, chitosan powder, and chitosan solution. The results showed that, although chitosan flakes had a better adsorption capacity by oil (0. 379 ?± 0. 030 grams oil per gram of adsorbent), the biopolymer was sinking after adsorbing oil. Chitosan solution did not present such inconvenience, despite its lower adsorption capacity (0. 013 ?± 0. 01 grams oil per gram of adsorbent). It was able to form a polymeric film on the oil slick, which allowed to restrain and to remove the oil from the samples of sea water. The study also suggests that chitosan solution 0. 5% has greater efficiency against oil spills in alkaline medium than acidic medium. (Barros et al. , 2013) Application of experimental design in optimization of crude oil adsorption from saline waste water using raw bagasse Experimental design was applied in the optimization of crude oil adsorption from saline waste water using raw bagasse.

The application of response surface methodology (RSM) was presented with temperature, salinity of ater, pH, adsorbent dose, and initial oil content as factors. A quadratic model could be used to approximate the mathematical relationship of crude Oil removal on the five significant independent variables. predicted values and experimental values are found to be in good agreement with R 2 of 97. 44%. The result of optimization shows that the maximum crude oil removal is equal to 67. 38% under the optimal condition of temperature of 46. 53 salinity of 37. g/L, pH of 3, adsorbent dose of 9 g/L and initial oil content of 300×10 ”6 . (Behnood et al. , 2014) Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness 1 of kapok fiber, sugarcane agasse and rice husks: Oil removal suitability matrix The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fiber , sugarcane bagasse and rice husks. The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fiber , sugarcane bagasse and rice husks energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy while the surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems have also been conducted.

Both kapok fiber and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils since all their oil sorption capacities exceed 10 gig. Synthetic sorbent exhibits oil orption capacities comparable to sugarcane bagasse while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fiber shows overwhelmingly high oil-to water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19. 35 to 201. 53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0. 76 to 2. 69).

This suggests that kapok fiber is a highly effectual oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix has been proposed to aid relevant stakeholders for evaluation of customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. (Ali et 01 2) Other ways for oil spill cleanup ln- situ combustion In-situ combustion is the oldest thermal recovery technique. It has been used for more than nine decades with many economically successful projects. In, situ combustion is regarded as a high-risk process by many, primarily because of the many failures of early field tests.

Most of those failures came from the application of a good process to the wrong reservoirs or the poorest prospects. The objective of this page is to describe the potential of in-situ combustion as an economically viable oil recovery technique for a variety of reservoirs. In-situ combustion is basically injection of an oxidizing gas (air or oxygen-enriched air) to generate heat by burning a portion of resident oil. Most of the oil is driven toward the producers by a combination of Gasdrive (from the combustion gases), Steam Waterdrive This process is also called fire flooding to describe the movement of a burning front inside the reservoir.

Based on the respective directions of front propagation and air flow, the process can be either Forward (when the combustion front advances in the same direction as the air flow or Reverse (when the front moves against the air flow). Bioremediation The process uses naturally present microorganisms to clean up oil spills. unfortunately the process won’t work out at sea and can only be used when the oil reaches shore ” which is what the coast guard and clean-up workers are currently trying to prevent.

The microorganisms, even without fertilizers, will begin to chow down on the oil when it enters their natural habitat. So, with the addition of sulfate or nitrate fertilizers the microorganism multiply beyond their natural state and eat up the toxic metals invading their home at up to five times the rate that they would without assistance. There is a side effect to this process, however. It is possible that after the microorganisms devour the massive oil spill they could introduce the heavy metals present in the spill into the food chain.

Larger organisms eat them and on up the ladder until it reaches humans. So though bioremediation may be lessening the initial impact of oil spills on the surrounding waters it could be introducing that very oil spill into our diets. Rice Husk Rice Husk has been also found to be very effective in heavy metal adsorption from aqueous waste. Rice husk is generated largely in rice producing ountries, especially in Asia. The annual world rice production has been found to be around 500 million metric tons, of which 10-20% is the husk.

Dry rice husk contains 70-85% of organic matter (lignin, cellulose, sugars etc. ) and the remainder consists of silica whgich is present in cellular membrane. Attention has therefore been focused on the utilization of modified and non- modified forms of this largely produced rice husk as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals in polluted water. The rapid uptake and high adsorption capacity of rice husk makes it an attractive alternative adsorption material. It was also discovered that maximum uptake of Cu and Pb can be achieved if pH is increased from 2-3, therefore remained relatively constant.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Theoretical Framework of the Study This study is anchored mainly on the Absorptive and Adsorptive property of Matter which is mainly cause by van der Waals Forces Capillary and van der Waals forces have been considered to be the most important forces in engineering application. These two forces are cohesive in nature, restricting the relative movement of particles and usually resulting in he formation of agglomerates that will affect the packing of particles considerably at either the microscopic or macroscopic level.

How to properly take the two inter- particle forces into the account has been a significant challenge in the study of packing particles (Yu et al. , 2003). Conceptual Framework of the Study Figure 1. The Relationship of Variables Chapter Ill RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design The study utilizes the experimental research design to find out if raw sugarcane bagasse can absorb or adsorb crude oil from saline water. It also uses the comparative research design to compare the effectiveness and fficiency of raw sugarcane bagasse with common oil spill sorbents such as human hair, feathers obtained from Gallus gallus and coconut husk.

Experimental Set- Up Raw Sugarcane Control Set-Ups Human Hair Chicken Feather Coconut Husk 5g Table 1 . Experimental Design showing the amount of sorbents in each set-up The set- ups will be done simultaneously. The amount of saline water and petroleum will be regulated in all set- ups- The test will be repeated thrice. Research Environment All procedures, with the exception of the gathering materials such as the sugarcane bagasse, human hair, feathers from Gallus gallus and coconut usk were performed in the Biology Laboratory of Cebu Normal University.

Data gathering were also done in the same location. Research Instruments and other sources of Data The researchers used a lot of data sources such as theses and dissertations, , general reference books from Cebu Normal University Library, manuscripts and other data from the world wide web. During the data gathering procedures, the researchers also made use Of the following laboratory apparatuses as listed below: 1. Beaker 2. Weighing scale (Analytical Balance) 3. Ruler 4. Timer Data Gathering Procedure Cleaning of Glasswares

All glassware used for the experiments were thoroughly washed first with detergent and tap water, then dried. Preparation of Sugarcane Bagasse The Sugarcane Bagasse was obtained from Durano Sugarmill, Central Nautical Highway, Danao City, Cebu. It was thoroughly washed with tap water, followed by rinsing in distilled deionized water, drying to constant weight. Preparation of Other Sorbents Human hair were collected from different Barber shop and Salons all over Cebu City and were rinsed with tap water, then dried.

Chicken Feathers were collected from Magay, Compostela, Cebu and undergone the same preparation. Coconut husk were purchased from Carbon, Cebu City and minced. Preparation of the Oil Spill Simulation Samples of seawater of the beach, located in the Municipality of Compostela, province of Cebu , were collected in bottles Of 5. 0 L. The bottles were transported to the laboratory and kept at room temperature prior to use in experiments. The samples of seawater presented at pH 7. 9. In a beaker of 1. 0 L, were added 300. 0 mL of seawater, on the surface of water, were added 3. g of petroleum, leaving the oil slick to spread over the water surface. Application of the Sorbents on the Simulated Oil Spill Treatment 1 . Five Grams of Different Sorbents such as Sugarcane Bagasse, Human Hair, Chicken Feathers and Coconut Husk were measured. Micro- Filter cloths were suspended at the top of every beaker. The four sorbents, five grams each were put on top of the cloth and were submerged simultaneously. After 30 minutes of submersion, the cloths were drawn up, left for another 30 minutes and weighed afterwards.

Treatment of Data The gathered from the experiment were collated, treated statistically and interpreted. To find out the mass of oil sorbed, the researchers made use of the formula given below: S -s Where: s mass of oil sorbed, = mass of dry sorbent, = mass of the wet sorbent To get the Sorptive Capaciy of the Sorbents, the formula is stated below: C p c sorptive capacity = volume of the solution o The average of the three replicates of each set-up were needed for the comparison of the four sorbents.