The Equilibrium Model
I. Introduction: As the society made its advancement, the meaning of life changed, with the change in lifestyle, and the environment of the institutions and the organizations; the individuals or group of individuals were engaged with. Infact, this change has rather made the simple life much complex. The present society is over-communicated in order to meet the growing challenges of the complicated business networks. The escalating challenge has not only shaken the equilibrium of the income and expenditure of sustaining the livelihood, but also has challenged the expectation of sustaining lives of a large section of the society, due to the perpetual nascent of the social structure, which is for that section is far from the reality, because of many background and fundamental reasons.
But the desperation of not being mendicant has forced the deprived mass to meet the slender requirements for their living, even in ways that are illegal. In the arena social science, this is the inception of crime, eventually, which driven by greed and foul practice of unlawful lifestyle has reached a higher order of its existence. As the activity penetrated into different sections, institutions and organisations of the society in various forms, the discipline of social science has adopted the study and analysis over it, broadly known as criminology.
II. Research Problem and Thesis Statement: Concurring to the aforementioned peccadilloes, multiplying in the society, a sentient mind can gauge the increasing quantity, incidences, forms and causes of crime, which are no longer restricted to socially retarded groups of outlaws. Originated from Greek term, Criminology, coined by the Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo back in the year 1885, Criminologia, was first used by the French anthropologist Paul Topinard, as Criminologie. This social science is meant for the study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon that includes the social and governmental regulation with the reaction to crimes. Being an interdisciplinary study, it shares the activities of behavioral sciences to a great extent (Deflem, 2006).
The behavioral science derives its result from the individuals or the groups of the same, which is an extreme combination of demography, culture, and various other elements. Therefore, the definitions of crimes vary in accordance with the places, parties involved and the scenes of crime, which can be broadly classified as blue-collar crime, corporate crime, organized crime, political crime, public order crime, state crime, state-corporate crime, and white-collar crime. Away from the conventional crime classifications, this paper will address the function of Equilibrium Model, which evaluates the criminal justice from the organizational point of view. Thus, as per the classification, issues will be dealt on the background of the Corporate Crime, which also involves the other types like, organized crime, state-corporate crime, and white collar crime for the typical reasons that support the order. The model will be analyzed on the basis of Social Theory, to display the effect of the model on the society at large, where the Organizations operate too, hence connecting to the organizational structure and the application of the model. Before drawing the conclusion, the informed criticisms will manifest the worth of the model in organizational situations.
III. Corporate Crime and Organization: The basic approach to understand the crime or criminal justice from the organizational point of view is to study criminology as corporate crime. In general, it refers to the crimes committed either by the corporations, or by the individuals having established link with any corporation or business entity in connection with the crime. This can be referred to the vicarious and corporate liability. The crime being corporate in nature, it is often associated with white collar crime, as the majority of individuals involved in the crime scene are mostly in the status to act or represent the interest of the corporation for being its employees or the professionals of a higher social class.
When the crime becomes the part of big business or the business itself, it takes the shape of organized crime. Criminals set up corporations to use it as the vehicle for laundering the criminal activities, creating an illegal sector of capital, which has been estimated to be the richest organization in the world with its “gross criminal product”, richer than 150 sovereign states. It estimates 20 percent of the total world trade. In the most unfortunate situations, the worst can happen, when the crime occurs from the existence of the relationship between corporation and the state (Castells, 1996). To give an adieu to the gauntlet that the society and the social organizations are exposed to, various models have been suggested through out the timeline of the social history to rectify the imperfections in the system and social order. Out of many, the paper is particularly focusing on the equilibrium model, whose function will be initially testified on the social background, in which, all the organizations are actually thriving.
IV. Social Theory and Equilibrium Model: To juxtapose the cause and effect of the social degradation, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of the nature of world humans are living in. This can be analysed with the rational concepts based on the theories that provide a view of the society. In the tradition of the theories, society is perceived as a model of balance or equilibrium. Further it is evaluated conflict model, the outcome of Hegelian dialectic. Recently, to understand the nature of world, the chaos theory supports that mostly it evolved from mathematics. In most of the social research, model of balance is widely used for the overarching principles that analyze the concept of the model. “All is flux”, has been written by Heraclites of Ephesus nearly 500 years BC, after he immersed his finger in the water of a flowing river and observed the ripples. It makes the fact clear that nothing in this world is static. The elements of the world flow, move, mutate and change over the time. And, as an ad hominem situation it is a universal fact that people waking to every new day, and day after day, where each day is not same as the one before. Thus, same is applicable to the reality of the society and criminal justice, which is subjected to modify as per the constant evolution or change in the society.
The second principle that propelled the former is the concept of “cultural lag”, developed by University of Chicago sociologist WF Ogburn in the year 1953. The observation is based on that the rate of change is accelerating, making the changes fast and faster and faster. The effect of this change works on the general components of all the cultures. The change occurs due to the difference in magnitudes and pace of change among the components that are technology, type of social organization, and values. Here, technology has the fastest adoptability to change, social organization slightly slower, and values are the slowest. Therefore, an expanding gap between technology and value remains constant. Value system, which takes ages to get established, are been challenged by the speed of technology, which has become prime media to commit crimes. But the crux of the matter is, the law is based on the values, which is the slowest component of culture. Hence, there remains a perpetual tension to equate; between the state of technology, social organization, and law, which is the set values.
Based on the above said principles, the equilibrium model of society appears to be a see-saw progressing across the continuum of time that constantly moves or changes its position over time and space, balancing the board relatively horizontal, which denotes the state equilibrium. It is the tendency of the society to execute minor automatic changes to the state. But, as all is flux, at times one side rises, while the other side falls to the limit that throws the society out of gear. At that juncture, society tries in an extremely conscious, directed and forceful manner to raise back the lower side to the horizon. The deviant side or section, far out of adjustment; receives pressure to be at horizon by means of new or modified law to apt the changing situation. Such major social adjustments have been the activities like, school desegregation, all kind of rights movements and their consequences, oil shortages, global warming, and our endless fights against poverty, drugs, alcohol, terrorism, white collar crime etc.
Apparently, most of the issues seem to be unresolved for years and it gives a sense of disparity about their solution. But, as per the logic of equilibrium model, it assumes the see-saw will resolve to the horizon and things will fall back into its places. Of course, being a value driven model the change and its effect is slow, which gives a feeling of the unresolved issues. Nonetheless, the criminological research considers the equilibrium model of society, assuming the all the odds will return to even level, stabilizing the system to normalcy; provided the right combination of explanation and policy is induced for a particular crime scene. The global report suggests that evaluators, committees, consultants, and other boards and groups seek to adjust the existing policy and procedures to bring back stability and allow progress to continue; instead of aborting the one existing and counting the introduction implementation cost of the new policies; each time the society looses its balance (Struckhoff, 2009).
V. The Equilibrium Model and Organization: Keeping the basic structure as it is, in the organizational front; there have certain changes in terms and terminologies. Like model of balance, here it is consider being the alternative of the professional model. This model is pro to the organizational motivation, thus, creates a demand of the participation of the same. As organization supports the system of consciously coordinated activities, equilibrium model balances the exchange of rewards between organization and members for their service performed. The model logisizes the long term participation of the members, and assures the organizations of their survival. Thus, it makes the same, a survival or motivational model as well. Equilibrium in general is the act of balancing the opposing forces, for which, it acts little on the status quo of organizational change, but, firmly consider the factors that help the organization to be in static state.
The organizational process is a chain reaction that apparently makes the organizational leaders think that the same is in a static level. Infact, the different parts and the departments of the organization are related to each other in a harmonious manner, where the members’ participation runs parallely. Each employee does the designated job, each department performs the pre-defined function, and the entire structure runs at ease. This is a concept same as of the homeostasis of organism, where as long as the body parts are doing its own tasks, the entire organism remains constant. But this structure in an organization can get disturbed with increased competition, member discontent with work or remuneration. That is why, member who quit, die, retire, fired are compensated by others to maintain the balance. Even, phasing out of a division, transferals, promotion, and change of the management bring a temporary loss of equilibrium in the organization. To restore the balance, ways like member replacement, financial rewards and various other adjustments are been used by the organization.
Though, there are points that negate the discussed concept, as equilibrium model gives a good amount emphasis on the personal front through inducement that covers a wide range of motivational factors including psychological and financial. In the contrary, issues can be raised that the equilibrium of an organization is the fruit of the condition of a given market economy, the size and power of the organization and the functional complexity of it. The practice of interdependence of members and departments in effort to perpetuate the organization is also challenged. It might carry out well in case of the labour handling division with skillful planning. But, the bureaucratic model turns down the concept of perpetuation in organization with the abstract rules of unconditional compliance of basic orientation.
Thus, as a matter of fact, neither the equilibrium nor bureaucratic model is meant to study the changes in the organization. It rather uses the concept like interdependence to know, whether or not any particular role has been implemented. It is a model to track down the movement of the orders that have been laid down. Still, any disconnect emerges out of the model is interpreted as the conflict between the individual values and the organizational expectations as projected by the strategic level. Though the model is known for the organizational shift, but its individual aspect cut short the way to its organization or mass philosophy. Also, as the loss of equilibrium happens due the present problem in the organization, it pays less attention to the formal labour agreement in an effort to remove it for a new change to bring the board back to horizontal level (Champion, 2003).
Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. The Information Age: Economy Society and Culture. Volume I. Oxford: Blackwell.
Champion, D. J. (2003). Administration of Criminal Justice: Structure, Function, and Process. Texas A&M International University: Prentice Hall.
Deflem, M. (2006). Sociological Theory and Criminological Research: Views from Europe and the United States. Elsevier, 279.
Struckhoff, D. R. (2009). Criminal Justice Policy: A (not so) New Millennium Approach. Illinois Academy of Criminology. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from http://www.illacad.org/articles2.html