The Home And School Education In Cuba Essay

This article provided a description of early childhood instruction in Cuba, concentrating on the relationship between the place and the school and on the originative usage of limited resources. It was prepared following a visit to Cuba by a deputation of early childhood pedagogues from the United States of America in March 2001. The writer described the educational programme provided for babies and yearlings, kindergartners, 5 twelvemonth olds ( in independent attention programmes and in primary schools ) and kids in infirmaries.

The incorporation of parents and the drawn-out household in the instruction procedure by instructors was discussed. It was interesting that although merely about 30 % of the kids of preschool age attend early childhood Centres ( as their female parents do non work ) , trained instructors visit these households to show drama and communicating accomplishments and keep treatments about kid development issues. Additionally, instructors hold developing Sessionss on environmental and cultural issues with little groups of parents. In the preschool installation, the installation for five twelvemonth olds and the category for 5 twelvemonth olds at the primary school, there was grounds of the engagement of parents and in some instances, members of the drawn-out household.

Parents, at all installations, were encouraged to be involved in the operations of the installations through visits and practical aid. At the primary school, a Parents ‘ Council farther assisted the school by carry oning place visits to measure demands or supplying support to households. Hospitalised kids were provided with instruction by a trained instructor to guarantee that they did non steal academically. Parents supported this educational procedure by their presence and engagement.

In add-on to the focal point on parental engagement, the writer besides stressed the originative and efficient mode in which instructors operated within a clime of limited stuff resources.

Makin, L. , Hayden, J. , & A ; Diaz, C. ( 2000 ) . High-quality literacy plans in early childhood schoolrooms: An Australian instance survey. Childhood Education, 76 ( 6 ) , 368-378.
Goal of survey

The end of the survey was to document the literacy patterns in early childhood schoolrooms in Australia and to understand the positions and experiences of parents and staff in relation to literacy.


All schoolrooms with pupils who were due to be promoted to primary school in the undermentioned twelvemonth in identified parts of Australia were invited to take part in the survey. A sum of 79 schoolrooms agreed to take part. Semi-structured interviews refering literacy were conducted with two members of staff from each schoolroom. Additionally, nine focal point group treatments were conducted with household members of kids in the schoolrooms. The Early Childhood Language and Literacy Scale ( ECLLS ) was used to measure the schoolrooms. The five highest ranking schoolrooms were compared with the five lowest ranking schoolrooms to measure the important differences in relation to literacy in schoolrooms.


Although the physical schoolrooms were welcoming and staff-children relationships were positive, the steps implemented for early literacy acquisition were by and large non strong.

There was incongruence between the positions of instructors and those of household members about the publicity of literacy in the place and schoolroom. This incongruence was marked when the linguistic communication of the household was different from that of the instructors. Family members tended to hold a more inclusive position of literacy, integrating telecasting, picture and computing machines, while instructors tended to hold a more traditional, book-based position of literacy.

When the highest-ranking schoolrooms were compared with the lowest-ranking schoolrooms, it was observed that the instructors of the highest-ranking schoolrooms were by and large more experient and the helpers by and large had more post secondary preparation than those of the lowest-ranking schoolrooms.

Highest-ranking schoolrooms were able to make an environment that was contributing to communicating and ranked high on the undermentioned countries: “ Furniture for everyday attention, drama and acquisition, ” “ Furnishings for relaxation and comfort, ” “ Room agreement for drama, ” “ Child-related shows ” , “ General supervising of kids, ” “ Staff-child interactions ” , “ Interactions among kids ” and “ Group clip. ”

Although instructors of both the highest-ranking schoolrooms and the lowest-ranking schoolrooms had a similar cognition base in relation to literacy, there were differences in their application of the cognition to pattern.

Teachers of the highest-ranking schoolrooms tended to see literacy as act uponing the kid ‘s life in its entireness while those in the lowest-ranking schoolrooms tended to see it in relation to its function in fixing the kid for school. The writers suggested that this might hold influenced their instruction attacks.

The cognition and usage of engineering by staff did non look to hold an impact on the evaluation of schoolrooms.

Staff in high-ranking schoolrooms identified verbal interactions as a literacy scheme twice every bit frequently as staff in low-ranking schoolrooms. Staff in high-ranking schoolrooms besides highlighted the importance of observation and encouragement as of import schemes in developing literacy. More staff in low-ranking schoolrooms stated that they spent single clip with pupils identified as necessitating aid. The writers contrasted the “ inclusive ecological attack ” of the high-level schoolrooms with the “ compensatory attack ” of the low-ranking schoolrooms.

Staff in high-ranking schoolrooms tended to see the value of the kid ‘s place linguistic communication ( if other than English ) to literacy while 15 % of staff in low-ranking schoolrooms did non position languages other than English as lending to the development of literacy.

Focus groups all displayed an grasp of the function of engineering and civilization in early literacy development. The focal point group which was made up of household members of kids who were in a low-ranking schoolroom identified the school ‘s failure to appreciate the kids ‘s bilingual/bicultural experiences as a important issue.

Marti-Bucknall, W. ( 2002 ) . Teaching and larning in early childhood in German-speaking Switzerland. Childhood Education, 78 ( 6 ) .
There is important diverseness in the early childhood programmes in Switzerland due to the figure of political provinces and linguistic communications in the state. This article provided a description of early childhood instruction in one part, Basel, Switzerland, concentrating on the day-to-day construction, stuffs used, learning methods, ratings and the attack to learning kids who do non speak German.

Kindergartens in Basel-Land provide two old ages of instruction for kids and purpose at the readying of kids for school. In the first twelvemonth of kindergarten, kids attend five forenoons and one afternoon per hebdomad, while in the 2nd twelvemonth of kindergarten, kids attend an extra afternoon each hebdomad. Children are placed in mixed-age groups. Although the accomplishments of reading, composing and written numeracy are non the focal point of the kindergarten, a 1998 survey ( Stamm 1998, cited in Zopfli, 2000 ) found that more than twenty per centum of kids come ining primary school are already able to read and make mathematics.

Childs are required to larn to number to ten, place and pull basic forms, create and transcript sequences and kind objects for mathematics. For linguistic communication, kids are required to show the ability to listen to their equals, respond to inquiries and to do and react to petitions in group scenes. Additionally, for originative look, kids are required to recognize colorss and to be able to utilize scissors, pens and paintbrushes.

On the twenty-four hours that the writer observed the kindergarten, there were activities that were initiated by the instructor and by the kids. The forenoon activities were singing ; larning Stationss which included completion of mystifiers, play dough mold, coloring, image sequencing, puting level buttons on a image form ; and story-telling. The afternoon session included free drama, structured drama activities and drawing.

The writer noted that the usage of mixed-age categories was good in that it promoted equal instruction. She besides commented on the benefits of unwritten linguistic communication development and gestural communicating during narrative revealing clip and the cognitive development and the development of all right motor accomplishments that occurred during station clip.

Childs are evaluated through observation by the instructor. Additionally, a particular instruction functionary evaluates kids for any learning challenges. Particular pedagogues intervene with kids sing acquisition challenges, every bit good as those for whom Swiss-German is their 2nd linguistic communication. ( The article noted that the metropolis of Basel has many transnational corporations and over the old ages, there has been an addition in the figure of kids in early childhood attention and instruction scenes who speak German as a 2nd linguistic communication ) . Children may besides be referred for farther intercession by specializers.

The writer noted the benefits of unwritten linguistic communication intercession for preschool kids for whom Swiss-German is their 2nd linguistic communication. These kids are able to larn the linguistic communication before they are officially required to read and compose.

Guild, D. ( 2000 ) . The relationship between early childhood instruction and primary school academic accomplishment in the Solomon Islands. International Journal of Early Childhood, 32: ( 1 ) .
This article examines the relationship between the usage and quality of early childhood instruction and the academic accomplishment of kids in Standard two in the Solomon Islands.


Thirty-four schools in the Solomon Islands were indiscriminately selected. A sum of six hundred and 66 Standard 2 kids were included from these schools. A questionnaire was sent to instructors seeking demographic information about the pupils every bit good as information about their early childhood experiences ( i.e. whether or non they had attended preschool ) . The kids were given a trial on literacy and mathematical accomplishments. Based on the result of the trials, a qualitative survey was conducted with the kindergartens and pre-schools from which the kids had graduated. Classroom observations were conducted and interviews were conducted with parents and instructors.


There was a positive relationship between attending at early childhood establishments and primary school accomplishment in reading.

There was a positive relationship between early childhood instruction and public presentation in specific subdivisions of reading comprehension and mathematics. These subdivisions included understanding the chief thought, remembrance of inside informations and doing decisions in reading comprehension and “ numeration, stating clip, symmetricalness and less-than symbol ” in mathematics.

Children who had attended early childhood establishments in which the instructors were trained and in which a important assortment of age-appropriate stuffs were available performed better in both reading and mathematics. Additionally, kids who scored good in the trials came from schools in which the methods used by instructors were developmentally appropriate and encouraged larning through active geographic expedition.

The figure of old ages attended by kids did non take to an betterment in the public presentation of reading comprehension or mathematics.

Newport, S. ( 2000/1 ) . Early Childhood Care, Work, and Family in Japan: Tendencies in a society of smaller households. Childhood Education, 78 ( 2 ) , 68 – 75.
This article explores the agreements for the proviso of early childhood attention and instruction in Japan, which has experienced societal alterations taking to greater demand for early childhood services. It besides provides recommendations to turn to the demand for attention services for babies and yearlings.

The growing rate in Japan has been worsening while the Numberss of kids in demand of pre-school services has been increasing steadily. This is due to societal alterations that include the addition in the Numberss of adult females who work outside of the household, the fact that adult females are acquiring married subsequently or non at all and the lessening in three-generational households. The authorities has implemented alterations with the purpose of bettering the birth rate. These alterations include attempts to better the handiness and quality of the kid attention centres. The health professional to infant ratio has been changed from 1:6 to 1:3 while the accent has shifted from a focal point on the rational development to holistic development.

Some policies have been relaxed to spread out the handiness of kid attention infinites. The bound on the figure of kid attention centres supplying attention for babies was removed so that kid attention centres that fitting authorities criterions can accept babies. Laws necessitating ownership of belongings to set up a kid attention Centre and every bit good as Torahs qualifying the minimal figure of kids have been relaxed. The authorities has besides taken stairss to promote male parents to play a more active function in the attention of their kids and employers to be more supportive of parents who need clip off for the attention of their kids.

The writer notes that preschool centres in Japan provide chances for instruction and socialisation of kids ages three and over, particularly in visible radiation of the little household sizes. It was noted, nevertheless, that these centres would non run into the mental and emotional demands of babies and yearlings whose demands are better met through individualized attention. The writer makes the undermentioned recommendations to turn to this challenge:

Focus on developing each kid as opposed to concentrating on demographics ;

Train and supervise adolescents in the proviso of baby sitting services ;

Encourage individuals to set up closer ties with individuals to whom they are non related by birth ; and

Encourage employers to make a child-friendly environment, for illustration, the proviso of parttime employment and support for parents who need to take clip off to care for their kids.

Kabiru, M. , Njenga, A. , & A ; Swadener, B. ( 2003 ) . Early childhood development in Kenya: Empowering immature female parents, mobilising a community. Childhood Education, 79 ( 6 ) , 358-363.

This article describes the execution and results of Mwana Mwende undertaking, which centred around the attention of babies and the demands of teenage female parents. The context within which the Mwana Mwende undertaking was conceptualized and implemented was the Kenyan experience of the development of early childhood attention and instruction programmes. Kenya is chiefly a rural, agrarian society, in which the proviso of attention for immature kids was traditionally the duty of the household.

However, alterations in the household construction have been influenced by globalisation, urbanisation and the spread of HIV/AIDS in the state. There has been a lessening in the Numberss of drawn-out households, an addition in the Numberss of working adult females, and by extension, an addition in the demand for early childhood attention installations. The heavy accent on academic success in Kenya has besides influenced the involvement in ECD services, as preschools are viewed as supplying non merely tutelary attention but besides an academic foundation. In Kenya, a big per centum of early childhood attention Centres are operated by community organisations.

The Mwana Mwende undertaking arose out of an observation of the demand for attention services for kids under three, who were frequently left unattended at place as this age group was non accepted by preschools, and out of concern for adolescent female parents, who had self-esteem issues and did non interact positively with their babes. The undertaking fostered the creative activity of self-help groups for adolescent female parents. The writers reported that female parents were positively impacted by these groups.

The undertaking evolved to run into the demands of the wider community and at the clip of the readying of the article, had expanded by authorising the community to better run into the demands of kids and young person. Villages were encouraged to organize Child and Youth Development Committees which strengthened the communities ‘ ability to pull off the undertaking. Members of the Child and Youth Development Committees were trained about child-related issues every bit good as HIV/AIDS. The young person groups that are managed by the Child and Youth Development Committees encourage young person to take productive lives and excite the creative activity of income bring forthing programmes. The writers concluded with the position that early childhood development has moved beyond the proviso of kid attention and instruction to community development in Kenya.

Talay-Ongan, A. ( 2001 ) . Early Intervention: critical functions of early childhood service suppliers. International Journal of Early old ages Education, 9 ( 3 ) , 221 – 228.

This article examines the function of early childhood health professionals and instructors in the proviso of early intercession services to kids with particular demands. The writer established a foundation for the article by observing that early intercession has a important and positive impact on kids with particular demands. The benefits include the part to the kids ‘s development, the betterment of the quality of life of the kids and their parents, the decrease in the degree of emphasis in the household, the decrease in the demand for particular instruction services subsequently in the kid ‘s life and the publicity of a more accepting societal environment for kids and their households.

Early intercession services are family-based and see the function of the household as cardinal in the decision-making procedure. Collaborative squads are made up of individuals from assorted professions and include household members. These squads work together to measure, program and portion schemes to guarantee that the kid ‘s demands are met. The early childhood instructor is an built-in portion of the squad. The squads develop Individualised Family Service Plans or Education Plans to be after for the demands of the kid and to measure the advancement made in relation to these programs. Early childhood instructors play a cardinal function in the development of the programs.

The writer outlined several other grounds to foreground the of import function played by early childhood service suppliers. She noted that the Early childhood pedagogues ( ECEs ) are knowing about Developmentally Appropriate Practice, every bit good as about disablements and developmental differences. This cognition guides them in their ability to measure and run into the demands of all kids. ECEs are besides sensitive to household and cultural diverseness. Additionally, early childhood scenes are realistic and are a suited surroundings within which to implement early intercession steps. These scenes are frequently accessible and are hence a utile point of contact for professionals involved in the intercession procedure.

Dockett, S. , Perry, B. ( 2003 ) . The passage to school: what ‘s of import? Educational Leadership, 60 ( 7 ) , 30-33.

Childs who make a positive passage from preschool to simple school tend to expose improved societal capablenesss and academic public presentations.


Interviews and studies were conducted of grownups in New South Wales, Australia and interviews were conducted with kids. The consequences of responses from instructors, parents and kids were analysed to understand their perceptual experiences of passages from pre-school to simple school.


Teachers and parents chiefly focused on the kids ‘s societal version to the new school environment while the kids focused on regulations and temperament, peculiarly the issue of holding friends in their new school. Teachers tended to concentrate on kids ‘s demands to larn to work in a group and to be able to take counsel from grownups other than household members. Parents tended to concentrate on their kid ‘s relationship with their new instructor and their version to a new group. Parents besides expressed concern about the safety of the school environment.

The writers noted that it was striking that neither parents nor instructors focused on cognition and accomplishments as important factors in preparedness for school. Children tended to concentrate more on cognition than either parents or instructors.

The writers identified a list of guidelines for effectual passage programmes. These included:

Develop long-run passage programmes as opposed to orientation programmes ;

Access equal support ;

Stimulate the kid ‘s growing as a scholar ;

Create positive relationships among parents, instructors and kids ; and

Develop effectual communicating among parents, instructors and kids.

The writers shared illustrations of the development and execution of passage programmes in two communities and highlighted the demand to orient such programmes for the communities in which they are being established.

Corsaro, W. , Molinari, L. ( 2000 ) . Priming events and Italian kids ‘s passage from Preschool to Elementary School: Representations and action. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63 ( 1 ) , 16 – 33.

This article posits that the passage from preschool to elementary is a important experience and may impact on the kid ‘s future instruction. The construct of “ priming events ” is used as a cardinal construct in the analysis of the experience of passage. Priming events are defined as “ activities in which kids, by their very engagement, attend prospectively to ongoing or anticipated alterations in their lives. ” Priming events are frequently portion of household and preschool activities that prepare the kids for simple school.


An ethnographic, comparative and longitudinal survey was conducted on preschools in the United States of America and Italy. This article was based on the work that had been conducted in Italy, as the portion of the survey based in the USA was non yet completed. Research workers participated daily in the kids ‘s lives at preschool over a five month period at the terminal of their attending at preschool. They so attended foremost grade with them for the first four months and so returned for a hebdomad at the terminal of first class. Interviews were conducted with preschool instructors and simple instructors. Additionally, interviews were conducted with a subsample of parents.


The writers noted that priming events were grounded in the modus operandis of the preschool. The cardinal modus operandi was identified as a forenoon meeting during which undertakings, activities and events were discussed.

Priming events included field trips to a nearby simple school and follow-up treatments about the kids ‘s observations. Additionally, the kids were on occasion assigned prep ; which introduced them to the construct of prep, which they would on a regular basis have at simple school. At school, the kids were given a literacy activity which they had to make independently. This besides helped to fix them for the hereafter, as they would be required to work independently in simple school.

Priming events in the modus operandis of peer civilization included treatments about older siblings who were go toing simple school, composing in the writer ‘s notebook and treatments about the equals who would be go toing a different simple school.

Pre-school instructors were concerned about how the kids would set to the demand to sit for drawn-out periods of clip and to the greater construction of simple school. Parents, nevertheless, were concerned about the kids ‘s literacy competence and about their accommodation to new schoolmates.

When the kids started simple school, prep was non ab initio given and regulations were non purely enforced during the first three hebdomads. Over clip the regulations ( such as those about walking around the category ) were enforced more purely. An illustration of the relationship between a priming event in preschool and the existent event in simple school was provided. Art and prose were blended in both preschool and simple school ; nevertheless, in preschool, art was the chief focal point while prose described and supported the art while in simple school, art became auxiliary to the prose. The priming event of art supported continuity between the two educational scenes.

The writers commented that the kids ‘s accommodation to simple school was by and large school and were of the sentiment that the kids ‘s experiences of priming events influenced the passage. Some kids who had assumed places of leading in preschool experienced accommodation jobs, as they were non given the attending from the instructor to which they had grown accustomed in preschool.

There were some jobs in moving out but these abated over clip. The writers noted that both parents and kids found the passage from preschool to simple school to be more disputing than they had anticipated. Children were chiefly concerned about the restrictions in drama clip. At the concluding interview, parents expressed concern that they were non permitted to come in the school ( as they had to drop off and pick up the kids in the courtyard ) and felt that the simple school was non as unfastened to parental engagement as the preschool had been.

Morrison, J. ( 2000 ) . Under colonialism to democratisation: Early childhood development in Ghana. International Journal of Early Childhood, 32 ( 2 ) , 24 – 30.

This article provided a historical overview of the development of the early childhood attention and instruction programme in Ghana, demoing the engagement of the missionaries every bit good as the engagement of the authorities. It so summarised the programme at the clip of the readying of the study, bespeaking that there were deficient installations for the figure of kids necessitating early childhood instruction and attention. It besides noted that many early childhood Centres lack trained instructors, stuffs, equipment and equal adjustment.

The article closed by looking into four countries of focal point for the hereafter. It cited the demand for early childhood instruction and attention to be promoted in the state. ( 1 ) In add-on to the benefits of early childhood attention for the kids themselves, the writers indicate that older female kids would profit, as they are presently kept from school to care for younger siblings. ( 2 ) There is demand for a national policy on early childhood attention and development to be formulated. ( 3 ) There is demand for coaction among the many organisations that contribute to the development of immature kids. ( 4 ) There is demand for incorporation of early childhood preparation in the programmes of instructor preparation colleges and at universities.