The efficiency of production depends on how good the assorted machines ; production installations and employee ‘s comfortss are located in a works. Merely the decently laid out works can guarantee the smooth and rapid motion of stuff, from the natural stuff phase to the terminal merchandise phase. Plant layout encompasses new layout every bit good as betterment in the bing layout.
It may be defined as a technique of turn uping machines, procedures and works services within the mill so as to accomplish the right measure and quality of end product at the lowest possible cost of fabrication. It involves a wise agreement of production installations so that work flow is direct.A
A works layout refers to the agreement of machinery, equipment and other industrial facilities- such as receiving and transportation sections, tool suites, maintainencerooms and employee aminities -for the intent of acheiving the quickest and smoothest production at the least cost. The topic of works layout non merely covers the initial layout of machines and other installations but encompasss betterment in, or alterations of, the bing layout in the visible radiation of subsequent developments in the method of production. In other words, a works layout is a floor program for finding and set uping the coveted machinery and equipment of a palnt, whether established or contemplated, in the one best topographic point to allow the quickest flow of stuff at the lowest cost and with the least sum of managing in treating the merchandise from the reception of the natural stuffs to the cargo of the finished merchandises.
The betterments in layouts already in usage in order to present new methods and betterments in fabrication processs. ”
In other words, Plant layout refers to the agreement of physical installations such as machinery, equipment, furniture etc. with in the mill edifice in such a mode so as to hold quickest flow of stuff at the lowest cost and with the least sum of managing in treating the merchandise from the reception of stuff to the cargo of the finished merchandise.
OBJECTIVES OF A GOOD LAYOUT
Any of the following aims might be acheived through a good layout:
Provide adequate production capacity
Reduce stuff handling costs
Reduce congestion that impedes the motion of people or stuff
Reduce jeopardies to forces
Use labors expeditiously
Increase employee morale
Utilize available infinite expeditiously and efficaciously
Supply for volume and merchandise flexibleness
Provide easiness of supervising
Facilitate co-ordination and face-to-face communicating where appropriate
Provide for employee safety and wellness
Allow easiness of maintainence
Allow high machine/equipment use
Plant layout is an of import determination as it represents long-run committedness. An ideal works layout should supply the optimal relationship among end product, floor country and fabrication procedure. It facilitates the production procedure, minimizes material handling, clip and cost, and allows flexibleness of operations, easy production flow, makes economic usage of the edifice, promotes effectual use of work force, and provides for employee ‘s convenience, safety,
comfort at work, maximal exposure to natural visible radiation and airing. It is besides A of import because it affects the flow of stuff and procedures, labour efficiency, supervising and control, usage of infinite and enlargement possibilities etc.
An efficient works layout is one that can be instrumental in accomplishing the undermentioned aims:
a ) Proper and efficient use of available floor infinite
B ) To guarantee that work returns from one point to another point without any hold
degree Celsiuss ) Provide adequate production capacity.
vitamin D ) Reduce stuff handling costs
vitamin E ) Reduce jeopardies to forces
degree Fahrenheit ) Utilise labour expeditiously
g ) Increase employee morale
H ) Reduce accidents
I ) Provide for volume and merchandise flexibleness
J ) Provide easiness of supervising and control
K ) Provide for employee safety and wellness
cubic decimeter ) Allow easiness of care
m ) Allow high machine or equipment use
N ) Improve productiveness
TYPES OF LAYOUT
As discussed so far the works layout facilitates the agreement of machines, equipment and other physical installations in a planned mode within the mill premises. An enterpriser must possess an expertness to put down a proper layout for new or bing workss. It differs from works to works, from location to location and from industry to industry. But the basic rules regulating works layout are more or less same.
Equally far as little concern is concerned, it requires a smaller country or infinite and can be located in any sort of edifice every bit long as the infinite is available and it is convenient. Plant layout for Small Scale concern is closely linked with the mill edifice and built up country.
From the point of position of works layout, we can sort concern or unit into three classs:
1. Manufacturing units
3. Service EstablishmentsA
1. Manufacturing units
In instance of fabricating unit, works layout may be of four types:
( a ) Merchandise or line layout:
Under this, machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the merchandise. The stuffs move form one workstation to another consecutive without any backtracking or divergence. Under this, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore stuffs are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the end product of one machine going input of the following, e.g. in a paper factory, bamboos are fed into the machine at one terminal and paper comes out at the other terminal.
The natural stuff moves really fast from one workstation to other Stationss with a minimal work in progress storage and stuff handling.
The grouping of machines should be done maintaining in head the following general rules.
a ) All the machine tools or other points of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations
B ) There should no points where one line crossed another line.
degree Celsius ) Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but non needfully
at one point.
vitamin D ) All the operations including assembly, proving wadding must be included in the
Advantages: Merchandise layout provides the undermentioned benefits:
a ) Low cost of stuff handling, due to consecutive and short path and absence of backtrackingA
B ) Smooth and uninterrupted operations
degree Celsius ) Continuous flow of work
vitamin D ) Lesser investing in stock list and work in advancement
vitamin E ) Optimum usage of floor infinite
degree Fahrenheit ) Shorter processing clip or quicker end product
g ) Less congestion of work in the procedure
H ) Simple and effectual review of work and simplified production control
I ) Lower cost of fabricating per unit
Disadvantages: Merchandise layout suffers from following drawbacks:
a. High initial capital investing in particular purpose machine
B. Heavy operating expense charges
c. Breakdown of one machine will halter the whole production procedure
d. Lesser flexibleness as specially laid out for peculiar merchandise.
Suitability: Merchandise layout is utile under following conditions:
1 ) Mass production of standardised merchandises
2 ) Simple and insistent fabrication procedure
3 ) Operation clip for different procedure is more or less equal
4 ) Reasonably stable demand for the merchandise
5 ) Continuous supply of stuffs
Therefore, the fabricating units affecting uninterrupted fabrication procedure,
bring forthing few standardised merchandises continuously on the house ‘s ain specifications and in expectancy of gross revenues would prefer merchandise layout e.g.
chemicals, sugar, paper, gum elastic, refineries, cement, cars, nutrient processing
and electronics etc.A
( B ) Procedure layout:
In this type of layout machines of a similar type are arranged together at one topographic point.
E.g. Machines executing boring operations are arranged in the boring
section, machines executing projecting operations be grouped in the casting
section. Therefore the machines are installed in the workss, which follow the
Therefore, such layouts typically have boring section, milling section, welding section, heating section and picture section etc. The procedure
or functional layout is followed from historical period. It evolved from the handcraft method of production. The work has to be alloca ted to each
section in such a manner that no machines are chosen to make every bit many different occupation
as possible i.e. the accent is on general intent machine.
The grouping of machines harmonizing to the procedure has to be done maintaining in head the undermentioned rules
a ) The distance between sections should be every bit short as possible for avoiding
long distance motion of stuffs
B ) The sections should be in sequence of operations
degree Celsius ) The agreement should be convenient for review and supervising
Advantages: Procedure layout provides the undermentioned benefits
a ) Lower initial capital investing in machines and equipments. There is high
grade of machine use, as a machine is non blocked for a individual merchandise
B ) The operating expense costs are comparatively low
degree Celsius ) Change in end product design and volume can be more easy adapted to the end product
of assortment of merchandises
vitamin D ) Breakdown of one machine does non ensue in complete work arrest
vitamin E ) Supervision can be more effectual and specialized
degree Fahrenheit ) There is a greater flexibleness of range for enlargement.
Disadvantages: Merchandise layout suffers from following drawbacks
a. Material handling costs are high due to turn backing
B. More skilled labor is required ensuing in higher cost.
c. Time spread or slowdown in production is higher
d. Work in progress stock list is high necessitating greater storage infinite
e. More frequent review is needed which consequences in dearly-won supervising
Suitability: Procedure layout is adopted when
1. Merchandises are non standardized
2. Measure produced is little
3. There are frequent alterations in design and manner of merchandise
4. Job shop type of work is done
5. Machines are really expensive
Therefore, procedure layout or functional layout is suited for occupation order production
affecting non-repetitive procedures and client specifications and non standardized
merchandises, e.g. tailoring, visible radiation and heavy technology merchandises, made
to order furniture industries, jewellery.
( degree Celsius ) Fixed Position or Location Layout
In this type of layout, the major merchandise being produced is fixed at one location.
Equipment labor and constituents are moved to that location. All installations are
brought and arranged around one work centre. This type of layout is non relevant for little graduated table entrepreneur.A
Advantages: Fixed place layout provides the undermentioned benefits
a ) It saves clip and cost involved on the motion of work from one
workstation to another.
B ) The layout is flexible as alteration in occupation design and operation sequence can be
degree Celsius ) It is more economical when several orders in different phases of advancement are
being executed at the same time.
vitamin D ) Adjustments can be made to run into deficit of stuffs or absence of workers
by altering the sequence of operations.
Disadvantages: Fixed place layout has the undermentioned drawbacks
a. Production period being really long, capital investing is really heavy
B. Very big infinite is required for storage of stuff and equipment near the
c. As several operations are frequently carried out at the same time, there is possibility
of confusion and struggles among different workgroups.
Suitability: The fixed place layout is followed in following conditions
1. Industry of bulky and heavy merchandises such as engines, ships, boilers,
generators, waggon edifice, aircraft fabrication, etc.
2. Construction of edifice, overpasss, dikes.
3. Hospital, the medical specialties, physicians and nurses are taken to the patient ( merchandise ) .
( vitamin D ) Combined layout
Certain fabricating units may necessitate all three procedures viz. intermittent
procedure ( occupation stores ) , the uninterrupted procedure ( mass production stores ) and the
representative procedure combined procedure [ i.e. assorted stores ] .
In most of industries, merely a merchandise layout or procedure layout or fixed location
layout does non be. Thus, in fabrication concerns where several merchandises
are produced in perennial Numberss with no likeliness of uninterrupted production,
combined layout is followed. Generally, a combination of the merchandise and
procedure layout or other combination are found, in pattern, e.g. for industries
affecting the fiction of parts and assembly, fiction tends to use the
procedure layout, while the assembly countries frequently employ the merchandise layout. In soap,
fabrication works, the machinery fabrication soap is arranged on the
merchandise line rule, but accessory services such as warming, the fabrication of
glycerol, the power house, the H2O intervention works etc. are arranged on a
When two mercantile establishments carry about same ware, clients normally buy in the
one that is more appealing to them. Therefore, clients are attracted and kept by
good layout i.e. good lighting, attractive colors, good airing, air
conditioning, modern design and agreement and even music. All of these things
average client convenience, client entreaty and greater concern volume.
The client is ever impressed by service, efficiency and quality. Hence, the
layout is indispensable for managing ware, which is arranged as per the infinite
available and the type and magnitude of goods to be sold maintaining in head the
convenience of clients.
There are three sorts of layouts in retail operations today.
1. Self service or modified self service layout
2. Full service layout
3. Particular layouts
The self-service layouts, cuts down on gross revenues clerk ‘s clip and let clients to
choice ware for themselves. Customers should be led through the shop in
a manner that will expose them to every bit much show country as possible, e.g. Grocery store
Shops or section shops. In those shops, necessities or convenience goods
should be placed at the rear of the shop. The usage of colour and lighting is really
of import to direct attending to interior shows and to do the most of the shops
All operations are non self-service. Certain forte endeavors sell to fewer
Numberss of clients or higher priced merchandise, e.g. Apparel, office machines,
featuring goods, manner points, hardware, good quality places, jewellery, baggage and
accoutrements, furniture and contraptions are all illustrations of merchandises that require
clip and personal attending to be sold. These full service layouts provide country and
equipment necessary in such instances.
Some layouts depend purely on the type of particular shop to be set up, e.g. Television
fix store, soft ice pick shop, and drive-in soft drink shops are all illustrations of
concern necessitating particular design. Therefore, good retail layout should be the one,
which saves rent, clip and labor.
3. Services centres and constitution
Servicess constitutions such as motels, hotels, eating houses, must give due
attending to client convenience, quality of service, efficiency in presenting services
and delighting office atmosphere. In today ‘s environment, the clients look for easiness in
nearing different sections of a service organisation and therefore the layout
should be designed in a manner, which allows clients speedy and convenient entree
to the installations offered by a service constitution.
FACTORS INFLUENCING LAYOUT
While make up one’s minding his mill or unit or constitution or shop, a small-scale
man of affairs should maintain the undermentioned factors in head:
a ) Factory edifice: The nature and size of the edifice determines the floor
infinite available for layout. While planing the particular demands, e.g. air
conditioning, dust control, humidness control etc. must be kept in head.
B ) Nature of merchandise: merchandise layout is suited for unvarying merchandises whereas
procedure layout is more appropriate for custom-made merchandises.
degree Celsius ) Production procedure: In assembly line industries, merchandise layout is better. In
occupation order or intermittent fabrication on the other manus, procedure layout is desirable.
vitamin D ) Type of machinery: General intent machines are frequently arranged as per
procedure layout while particular purpose machines are arranged harmonizing to
vitamin E ) Repairs and care: machines should be so ordered that equal
infinite is available between them for motion of equipment and people
required for mending the machines.
degree Fahrenheit ) Human needs: Adequate agreement should be made for cloakroom,
washroom, cabinets, imbibing H2O, lavatories and other employee installations,
proper proviso should be made for disposal of wastewaters, if any.
g ) Plant environment: Heat, visible radiation, noise, airing and other facets should be
punctually considered, e.g. pigment stores and plating subdivision should be located in
another hall so that unsafe exhausts can be removed through proper
airing etc. Adequate safety agreement should besides be made.
Therefore, the layout should be contributing to wellness and safety of employees. It
should guarantee free and efficient flow of work forces and stuffs. Future enlargement and
variegation may besides be considered while be aftering mill layout.
APPLICABILITY OF PLANT LAYOUT
Plant layout is applicable to all types of industries or workss. Certain workss require particular agreements which, when incorporated make the layout expression distinguishable signifier the types already discussed above. Applicability of works layout in fabrication and service industries is discussed below. In instance of the fabrication of detergent pulverization, a multi-storey edifice is specially constructed to house the boiler. Materials are stored and poured into the
boiler at different phases on different floors. Other installations are besides provided around the boiler at different Stationss.
Another pertinence of this layout is the industry of talcum pulverization. Here machinery is arranged vertically i.e. from top to bottom. Thus, stuff is poured into the first machine at the top and pulverization comes out at the underside of the machinery located on the land floor.
Yet another pertinence of this layout is the newspaper works, where the clip
component is of supreme importance, the achievement being gapped in seconds.
Here works layout must be simple and direct so as to extinguish distance, hold and
confusion. There must be a perfect coordination of all sections and
machinery or equipments, as stuffs must ne’er neglect.
Plant layout is besides applicable to five star hotels as good. Here lodging, saloon,
eating house, kitchen, shops, swimming pool, wash, shaving barrooms, shopping
arcades, conference hall, parking countries etc. should all happen an appropriate topographic point in
the layout. Here importance must be given to cleanliness, elegant visual aspect,
convenience and compact expressions, which attract clients.
Similarly works layout is applicable to a film hall, where accent is on
comfort, and convenience of the cinemagoers. The projector, screen, sound box,
fire contending equipment, atmosphere etc. should be of extreme importance.
A works layout applies besides the grouping of machinery, to an agreement for
other installations as good. Such installations include having and despatching points,
review installations, employee installations, storage etc.
By and large, the receiving and the dispatching sections should be at either terminal
of the works. The storage room should be located near to the production, having and despatching centres in order to minimise handling costs. The review
should be right following to other despatch section as reviews are done eventually, before despatch.
The care section dwelling of lighting, safety devices, fire protection,
aggregation and disposal of refuse, bit etc. should be located in a topographic point which is
easy accessible to all the other sections in the works. The other employee
installations like lavatory installations, imbibing H2O installations, first assistance room, cafeteria etc.
can be a small off from other sections but should be within easy range of the
employees. Hence, there are the other industries or workss to which works layout is
The importance of a layout would be better appreciated if one understands the influence of an efficient layout on the fabrication map: it makes it smooth and efficient. Operating efficiencies, such as economic systems in the cost of managing stuffs, minimisation of production holds and turning away of bottlenecksaa‚¬ ” all these depend on a proper layout.
An ideally laid out works reduces fabrication costs through decreased stuffs managing, reduced forces and equipment demands and decreased procedure stock list.
The aims or advantages of an ideal layout are outlined in the paragraphs that follow. The advantages are common to all the workss, irrespective of age ; and whether a works employs 50 workers or 50,000 makes no difference in so far as the pertinence of the works layout advantages is concerned. Some of these advantages are: A
Economies in Managing
About 30 % to 40 % of the fabrication cost is accounted for, by stuffs managing. Every attempt should, therefore, be made to cut down on this cost. Long distance motions should be avoided and specific managing operations must be eliminated. A cynic may state that the cheapest manner to manage stuffs is non to manage them at all. But, in a mill, stuffs have to be handled ; and hence, it all depends on the layout.
Effective Use of Available Area
Every inch of the works country is valuable, particularly in urban countries. Attempts should hence be made to do usage of the available country by be aftering the layout decently. Some stairss for accomplishing this terminal are: location of equipment and services in order that they may execute multiple maps ; development of up-to-date work countries and operator occupation assignments for a full use of the labour force.
Minimization of Production DelaysA
Repeat orders and new clients will be the consequence of prompt executing of orders. Every direction should seek to maintain to the bringing agendas. Often, the deadline day of the months for bringing of production orders are a bug-a-boo to the direction.
Plant layout is a important factor in the timely executing of orders. An ideal layout eliminates such causes of holds as deficit of infinite, long-distance motions of stuffs, spoiled work and therefore contributes to the rapid executing of orders.
Improved Quality Control
Timely executing of orders will be meaningful when the quality of the end product is non below outlooks. To guarantee quality, review should be conducted at different phases of industry. An ideal layout provides for review to guarantee better quality control.
Minimum Equipment Investment
Investing on equipment can be minimized by planned machine balance and location, lower limit handling distances, by the installing of general intent machines and by planned machine burden. A good works layout provides all these advantages.
Avoidance of Constrictions
Constrictions refer to any topographic point in a production procedure where stuffs tend to stack up or are produced at a velocity, less rapid than the old or subsequent operations. Constrictions are caused by unequal machine capacity, unequal storage infinite or low velocity on portion of the operators. The consequences of constrictions are holds in productions agendas, congestion, accidents and wastage of floor country. All these may be overcome with an efficient layout.
Better Production Control
Production Control is concerned with the production of the merchandise of the right type, at the right clip and at a sensible cost. A good works layout is a necessity for good production control and provides the production control officers with a systematic footing upon which to construct organisation and processs.
A good works layout ensures better supervising in two ways:
1.Determining the figure of workers to be handled by a supervisor and
2.Enabling the supervisor to acquire a full position of the full works at one glimpse.
A good works layout is, hence, the first measure to good supervising.
Improved Use of Labor
Labor is paid for every hr it spends in the mill. The efficiency of a direction lies in using the clip for productive intent. A good works layout is one of the factors in effectual use of labour. It makes possible single operations, the procedure and flow of stuffs managing in such a manner that the clip of each worker is efficaciously spent on productive operations.
Improved Employee Morale
Employee morale is achieved when workers are cheerful and confident. This province of mental status is critical to the success of any organisation.
Morale depends on:
( a ) Better working status ;
( B ) Better employee installations ;
( degree Celsius ) Reduced figure of accidents ;
( vitamin D ) Increased net incomes.
Plant layout has a bearing on all these.
Avoidance of Unnecessary and Costly Changes
A planned layout avoids frequent alterations which are hard and dearly-won. The incorporation of flexibleness elements in the layout would assist in the turning away of revisions.A
Procedure layout similar equipment & A ; undertakings grouped ; besides called functional layout ; utile for low volume, high assortment occupations used when little batches of different merchandises are created or worked on in a different operating sequence
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROCESS LAYOUTS
Low Volume, High Variety Production with Random Routing ( Spaghetti-Like Flow )
General Purpose Machines —
Machine apparatuss are frequent and long
Work-In-Process — High
Throughput Ratess tend to be Low
Material Handling — High
Operator Utilization — Low?
Throughput Times ( Lead Time ) — High
System is Very Flexible, produces many different types of parts: cogwheels, shafts, pinions, lodgings, clinchs, etc.
low capital investing,
fewer m/c ;
higher infinite use ;
flexibleness in equipment allotment ;
workers gain expertness ;
jobs localised ;
demands more infinite ;
no mechanization ;
high wip ;
work scheduling jobs ;
Equipment placed in usage sequence ; besides called line layout ; utile in assembly work such as autos, m/cycle
The merchandise layout ( assembly line ) is used when all merchandises undergo the same operations in the same sequence
High volume production
Particular purpose machines and stuff handling equipment
Throughput rates — high
Work-in-process — low
Setup/Run clip ratio — low
System is really inflexible
Control is comparatively simple
Small mfg rhythm ;
low wip ;
min stuff handling ;
lower labor cost ;
effectual quality control ;
easy to agenda ;
easy prodn control ;
Change in work nature needs alteration in layout ;
m/c use may non be optimal ;
m/c breakdown holds work ;
work country expansion/m/c add-on non possible
Raw stuff placed in fixed places ; besides called fixed place layout
Reduces motion of m/c & A ; equipment ;
Minimizes damage/cost of motion ;
continuity of assigned work force
Skilled & A ; various workers needed due to multiple operations ;
skill combination may be hard to obtain ;
higher wage ;
Motion of people/material may be expensive ;
equipment use low as they are left at location for subsequent use alternatively of being moved as & A ; where needed.