The Impact of Permanent Change of Location to CareerOriented Military WivesAbstractThe research proposal seeks to identify the satisfaction levels of military wives relative to the permanent change of location of their husbands and its effect on their careers. The study will be adopting an exploratory research in which both qualitative and quantitative tradition of research will be adopted.
The study will include administering surveys to 100 respondents and 10 interviews as well, using purposive sampling. The study will include military wives who have a relatively good career and have experienced at least two permanent change of locations owing from the nature of their husbands’ career.The military lifestyle often has families which move regularly, hence paving the way for the disruption of spouses’ jobs, hence forcing them to look for new jobs or positions hence causing serious problems in terms of military spouses’ respective disposition in terms of work life aspirations. Initial review of scholarly literatures revealed that both emotional factors such as dissatisfaction, stress, feeling of failure and feeling of undervalued together with economical factors such as underemployment, decreased earnings or eventually being not capable to find a good career are the problems that military wives face in times of the need for a change of location emerges.Statement of the Problem Satisfaction among military wives relative to the permanent change of location of their husbands and the effect on their careers is an area that has not yet been given a significant degree of attention. Most of the researches look into the economic aspects of the change of location such as the capability of the woman to find a new job, her earnings and its effect to the family.
Studies on successful and career oriented military wives were not given too much attention, as researches that were made with regard to the said area oftentimes focused on the traditional disposition of women, such as having a career that is relatively inferior to their husbands (Frank and Wildsmith, 2005). In effect of this, the study seeks to identify the correlation between military wives’ satisfaction and the permanent change of location of their husbands. The study will be adopting an exploratory study due to the relatively scarce amount of literature concerning the research topic.
This type of approach will allow the researcher to not only validate his or her hypothesis but also can pave the way for additional variables or factors that contributes to the satisfaction levels of the focus of the study.Literature Review It is often the case that military families include one person enlisted in the military, which usually is played by the male and another one which seeks to maintain a career or a very satisfying work life in the civilian world, which is usually performed by the female (Trougakos et.al., 2007). The military lifestyle often has families which moves regularly, hence paving the way for the disruption of spouses’ jobs, hence forcing them to look for new jobs or positions hence causing serious problems in terms of military spouses’ respective disposition in terms of work life aspirations (Trougakos et.al., 2007, p.391).
Studies reveal that a third of United State’s military spouses which specifically constitutes 60% of 694,000 military spouses are in the workforce, and are forced to transfer their jobs every year (Shellenbarger, 2005 as cited from Trougakos et.al., 2007, p.
392).The study of Trougakos et.al (2007) revealed that often times military spouses, most especially those who experience frequent transfer of locations which forces them to leave their respective jobs make them feel that they are underemployed (Borgen,Amundson, ; Harder, 1988; Feldman, 1996 as cited from Trougakos et.al., 2007, p.400).
In effect of this, they see themselves as having a relatively lower quality of employment either in relation to others with common or similar experience or in relation to a person’s own previous education and work history (Feldman, 1996 as cited from Trougakos et.al., 2007). According to Buss ; Redburn (1983) and Leana ; Feldman (1992) as cited from Trougakos et.al (2007, p.401) these feelings are often common most especially for those spouses who are enlisted members of the military who have been receiving a relatively lower amount of wage (Trougakos et.
al., 2007, p.402). Furthermore Trougakos et.
al (2007) pointed-out that those individuals who see themselves as underemployed tend to have more negative perceptions of their abilities to make good career decisions in the future and eventually paved the way for the decrease of their convictions to achieve their goals (Trougakos et.al., 2007, p.
403).In effect of this, it could be implied that since military spouses often experience a very difficult time finding a new work at the event that their spouse changed his respective military deployment location, the aforementioned tend to feel stressed in terms of balancing priorities or identifying specific utilities brought forth between choosing their career or supporting their husbands. At times, it could also be implied that wives may feel that they are bounded by the roles that they have to play in the family, which in this case being a supportive wife to their husbands.
This could further be strengthened by the study of Boyle et al. (2008) which said that often times wives who have to transfer locations experienced move-related stress. According to Boyle et al (2008), wives tend to feel that the process of changing locations frequently (twice or more) paved the way for the disruption of the woman’s social ties and social networks (p.218), which could be implied as one of the contributing factors as well for the aforementioned’s success in their respective chosen careers. Boyle et. Al (2008) asserted that women, most especially the career oriented ones who chose to sacrifice their hob for the sake of their husband took a lot of sacrifice in terms of their economic well being which in one way or another can pave the way for union dissolution among spouses (p.
219). As change of locations among spouses increases and the support demanded by the military husband increases as well, the power imbalance between the man and the woman widens, hence breeding more stress and dissatisfaction, more particularly on the end of the wives (p.219). The study of McKinnish (2008) provided another perspective in terms on the economic well-being of military wives. According to McKinnish (2008), earnings of married women, more often decrease with the move, hence making the aforementioned feel as if they are a “trailing spouse” or a “tied mover” (p.829). In effect of this it could be implied that both emotional such as dissatisfaction, stress, feeling of failure and feeling of undervalued together with economical factors such as underemployment, decreased earnings or eventually being not capable to find a good career are the problems that military wives face in times of the need for a change of location emerges.Specific Research Questions and Hypotheses In order to cater to the problem of the research the study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What is the effect of emotional well-being of military wives to their over-all satisfaction with regard to their career pursuit and success of their familial disposition; and (2) What is the effect of the economic well-being of military wives to their over-all satisfaction with regard to their career pursuit and success of their familial disposition.
Consequently, the study has the following hypotheses: (1) The emotional and economic well being of career-oriented military wives has a correlation to the permanent change of location of their husbands; and (2) The satisfaction levels of career oriented military wives has a correlation to their career pursuit and success of their familial disposition. The study is seen to significantly contribute to the scarce number of scholarly literatures exploring on demographic characteristics that has not been captured by earlier studies, such as the focus of this study, relatively career successful military wives and its effect to the relationship of their over-all satisfaction and health of their family dynamics. The study is expected to contribute not only in the scholarly sense, but also would be able to significantly contribute on how military families can further improve its disposition, and prevent any negative repercussions that could emerge in a set-up that the study assumed to be unfavorable to military wives.Methodology This section of the proposal elaborates on the design classification, nature of the participants, measures, analysis plans, limitations, threats to internal validity and external validity.Design classification The research will be employing both qualitative and quantitative research traditions.Quantitative research employs the method that is based on testing of theories. It uses measurement of numbers, and statistical analysis to perform its studies. The idea behind quantitative research is often to ascertain that a generalized theory or the prediction of a theory will be confirmed by using quantitative method.
The aforementioned normally starts with the hypothesis and the theories that are required to be tested. The approach of quantitative research includes the use of instruments, usually formal and generally recognized instruments (Bryman, 2006).Qualitative Research on the other hand focuses primarily on words rather than numbers. The main research instrument for such a type of tradition is the process of involvement of the researcher to the people whom he or she studies (Holloway, 2002, p. 5). In relation with this, the viewpoints of the participants are also taken significantly.
The Qualitative research tradition focuses on small-scale studies wherein deep explorations are being conducted in order to provide a detailed and holistic description and explanation of a specific subject matter. Rather than focusing on a single or two isolated variables, the aforementioned takes into account interconnected activities, experiences, beliefs and values of people, hence adopting a multiple dimension for study.Participants According to Grinnell and Unrau (2005) research should cater to a target population that has all the necessary information for the research such as sampling elements, sampling units, and area of coverage. For the purpose of this study, the researcher is trying to measure the emotional and economic satisfaction levels of military wives in relation to permanent change of locations of their husbands.For the purpose of this study, the research will be asking 100 respondents coming from five different cities ;enter state here; to participate in the survey and consequently 10 participants for the interviews. The study will be adopting a purposive sampling method wherein the participants who will be asked to join the study should have relatively successful careers, such as being a senior employee, supervisory or managerial level and has a salary that is relatively competitive compared to their counterparts.
In addition, they should have experienced at least one to two change of locations attributed to the military career of their husbands. This type of sampling method is vital to assure the validity of the results.The participants will be asked to participate in the study in exchange for a more scholarly perspective and suggestion as to the nature of their disposition as military wives and what they can do to effectively deal with their situation and prevent any problems that may arise due to the conflict of priorities or values that may emerge in the set-up that they are currently experiencing.Measures For the purpose of this research the independent variable is: the satisfaction levels of military wives. On the other hand, the dependent variables are: stress, feeling of failure, feeling of undervalued, experiences of underemployment, experiences of decreased earnings and difficulty of finding good career options. Satisfaction levels as qualified by the research are the degree of positive feelings that the career-oriented military wife feels in relation to both of her emotional and economical well-being.
Her emotional well-being includes the absence of stress, career-oriented success and feeling of being valued. On the other hand, her economic well-being includes her experiences of underemployment, her amount of earnings, and capability of finding a good career after the relocation. The feeling of stress are attributed to the negative feeling that arise due to the transfer that might have affected her social networks and feeling of the uncertainty of what will become of her career after she transferred location; while the feeling of failure is attributed to her feeling of being successful or not successful in her chosen field. The feeling of undervalued is coined to her self-perception as to her purpose after she leaves her career; while underemployment is attributed to aforementioned’s act of settling to a job that she feels is less than her skill-set and expertise. Decreased earnings could be viewed relative to her previous compensation in her last job, and finally the difficulty of finding good career options could be related to the number of rejections she experienced in looking for a job which she have before the relocation, or the length of time as to which she was able to find a job that is fit for her expertise. For the purpose of this research, the author will be using self-administered questionnaires. Self-administered questionnaires offered a higher response rate and are also relatively cost effective (Bryman, 2006). Foremost of its advantage rests on the notion that the process of data gathering could be more personal and also the researcher could have clarify certain notions that could be unclear on the survey form.
However, one distinct disadvantage of such a method is the difficulty of administrating the survey to multiple respondents all at the same time. In addition, the self-administered data gathering could be very time consuming as well.The research will also be conducting an interview in order to collect the qualitative data necessary for the research. Interviews are very relevant most specially in getting data that could be a rich source of information that surveys could not provide (Gorard and Taylor, 2004, p.
90-92). For the purpose of interviewing military wives, the research will be using a Structured Interview Format. However the structures of the questions are open-ended in nature to allow elaboration on the end of military wives and follow-up questions when are necessary.
The interview will be done using personal conversation, telephone conversations and email correspondence. The study’s reliability and validity go hand in hand as patterns of measurement are both dependent on the aforementioned (Gorard and Taylor, 2004). Reliability primarily focuses on the internal consistency and the repeatability of the variables within the research. On the other hand, validity centers on the correctness and appropriateness of the question that one intends to measure (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005).
According to Bryman (2006), validity is generally considered and established through the relationship of the instrument to the content, criterion or construct that it attempts to measure. A lack of validity can lead to incorrect conclusion. In order to make sure that the instrument used are reliable and valid, the researcher assured that such is patterned based on the objectives of the study, the secondary data and also on the feedback that was given based on the pilot study that was conducted. To conduct the study, the researcher must be able first to set the demographic requirements of his or her population sample. The vital demographic variables are: military wives who have relatively successful careers, such as being a senior employee, supervisory or managerial level and has a salary that is relatively competitive compared to their counterparts.
In addition, they should have experienced at least one to two change of locations attributed to the military career of their husbands. Two sets of primary data gathering will be employed, first is surveys using Likert-type questionnaires and second, interviews using structured questionnaires of open-ended questions. The quantitative data will be deployed using face-to-face surveys, which will take approximately one to two months, having at least two research assistants. For the purpose of the interviews, 15-20 days could be allotted having at least two research assistants as well. Upon gathering the primary data, the researcher should assure confidentiality of critical information such as name and any information that may compromise the reputation of the respondents and their families. Coercion, manipulation should be prevented, and if necessary, an informed consent should be provided to their participants, and if deemed vital the consent of their husbands as well to have them participate in the study.
Analysis PlanIn order to significantly analyze the relationship between, the study will be using Bivariate Correlation analyses. For the quantitative data, the research will be using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient to know if there is a direct linear relationship between variables. Grinnel and Unrau (2005) said that the value of the correlation coefficient ranges between a value of 1 and +1. It is on this respect that a relationship that ranges from 0 to 0.2 reveals a weak or no relationship. Consequently, values from 0.2 to 0.
4 pose a weak relationship. On the other hand values from 0.4 and 0.6 tell a moderate relationship, while 0.6 to 0.8 tells a strong relationship. Finally, values from 0.
8 to 1.0 present a very strong relationship. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient will tell if there is a significant relationship between emotional and economical variables to satisfaction levels of career-oriented military wives. For the purpose of the qualitative research, meta-analysis and triangulation will be used. Meta analysis is a form of a qualitative research approach which integrates all information from various studies within the same subject area in order to arrive at a conclusion about two related variables, such as for instance, “the effect of X intervention to Y income” (Cook et al., 1997, p. 380 as cited from Denyer and Tranfield, 2006).
The process of meta-analysis is vital as it takes into consideration all possible research paradigms that could be useful in the entire research process.Closely related to the concept of meta-analysis is the process of triangulation in which is a form of a qualitative research which seeks to integrate both qualitative and quantitative data (Roberts et al., 2002 as cited from Denyer and Tranfield, 2006, p.218).
The process of triangulation among researches could be primarily applied among case study researches since case studies often take into consideration both qualitative and quantitative evidences (p.330). These two methods of analysis of qualitative research is vital as it will allow the researcher to analyze qualitative data relative to previous studies, frameworks or theories and will also allow the aforementioned to relate the quantitative data to that of the quantitative data.Limitations The study is primarily limited of the time-frame allotted for the study together with its corresponding budget. In relation to this, the study is also limited to a particular state, that is the state of <enter state here> and will only focus on results of satisfaction levels of participants in <enter country here> which in one way or another could not significantly represent the disposition of other career-oriented military wives in other parts of the world. Also, the study is limited to the degree of information that the participants wanted to disclose. Since coercion, manipulation and other forms of unethical research practice should not be used, the study will be limited relative to the researcher’s respect of the participants’ digression of what to reveal and what to remain confidential.
ValidityThe study’s reliability and validity go hand in hand as patterns of measurement are both dependent on the aforementioned (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005). Reliability primarily focuses on the internal consistency and the repeatability of the variables within the research. On the other hand, validity centers on the correctness and appropriateness of the question that one intends to measure (Gorard and Taylor, 2004). According to Gorard and Taylor (2004), validity is generally considered and established through the relationship of the instrument to the content, criterion or construct that it attempts to measure. A lack of validity can lead to incorrect conclusion.In order to make sure that the instrument used are reliable and valid, the researcher will assure that such is patterned based on the objectives of the study, the secondary data and also on the feedback that was given based on the pilot study that was conducted.
The reliability of the sample size will be calculated based on the aforementioned’s confidence interval and confidence level.The confidence interval is the plus-or-minus figure that determined the confidence results of a particular study. For the purpose of this research, the projected confidence interval is plus or minus 9.
8 on a 95% confidence level and a 100 population size.On the other hand, the confidence level tells the degree of the accuracy of the research results. Often times, the confidence level is expressed in percentage and tells how frequently the population on the study would pick an answer that is within the confidence interval. For the purpose of this study, the author used the 95% confidence level which is most used confidence level among researches (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005).
As such, in analyzing the data for the survey, the research looked into a 95% confidence with a plus or minus 9.8 intervals. The wider that the confidence level that the research has to work on, the more certain as well that the population response would be more or less within that range.For the purpose of the research, the following formula was used for the Sample Size (Gorard and Taylor, 2004).ss = z2 * (p) * (1-p)_________________c2Where as:ss= the minimum sample sizez = z value (e.g. 1.96 for 95% confidence level)p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal (.
5 used for sample size needed)c = confidence interval, expressed as decimal (e.g., .04 = ±4)There are three major factors that would affect the confidence intervals, these are the sample size, percentage and the population size.A huge sample size would make the results of the research mirror exactly that of the population. This implies that a for every confidence level, a huge sample size reflects a more small confidence interval. Albeit it should be noted that the relationship between them is not linear that if one would double the sample size, such would also make the confidence interval go up (Gorard and Taylor, 2004).
The percentage of a particular response from the survey also is a determinant for accuracy. For instance if a particular response says 51%, therefore it implies that there is a 49% chance of the responses being erroneous. However if the response rates reveal a 99% positive response versus a 1% negative response, there would be no significant difference at all (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005).The population size also matters when one is studying a segment of population that is relatively small such as those from the specific hotels being studied.
On the other hand, if a research would be conducting a study from a very huge population, like for instance 500,000 or more, the size of the sample a sample size that is close to that exact number does not appear to be that relevant (Gorard and Taylor, 2004).Threats to Internal Validity Internal validity refers to the capability of the study’s chosen design to establish the cause and effect relationship of the approach adopted and consequently its corresponding outcome. In the same manner, internal validity refers to the absence of a relationship inferred from the cause and effect relationship of the variables for the study (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005).
One of the threats to internal validity that the research perceives are the maturation levels of its participants. Over fatigue, stress or other family related problems that is unique during the time of primary data gathering could have affected participants’ response. For instance, there could be instances where participants initially perceived no problem at all with their disposition, but due to a sudden occurrence that happened on or before the time of data gathering might affect their respective responses.
The selection-maturation interaction of participants could also be a factor, more particularly ages of the participants, which could also highly affect their perception towards the issue.Threats to External Validity External validity on the other hand, refers to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and corresponding characteristics of the participants (Grinnel and Unrau, 2005). Problems in external validity usually occur when the researcher experiences a problem in making a generalization.
One threat of external validity would be situational specific factors such as for instance the treatment of how the survey or interview was implemented, the time it was given, the location, lighting, noise and other factors that might affect participants’ responses.ReferencesBoyle, P. et. al.
(2008). Moving and Union Dissolution. Demography, Volume 45-Number1,209–222Bryman, A.
(2006). ‘Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done?’,Qualitative Research, 6, pp. 97-113.
Dandeker C. et al. (2006).
Deployment Experiences of British Army Wives Before,During and After Deployment: Satisfaction with Military Life and Use of Support Networks.In Human Dimensions in Military Operations – Military Leaders’ Strategies for Addressing Stress and Psychological Support (pp. 38-1 – 38-20). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-134, Paper 38. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: RTO.
Daymon C. and Holloway I., (2002). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relationsand Marketing Communications. London: Routledge.
Denyer, D. and Tranfield, D., 2006.
Using qualitative research synthesis to build an actionableknowledge base. Management Decision, 44 (2), pp.213-227.Frank, R. and Wildsmith, E.
(2005). The Grass Widows of Mexico: Migration and UnionDissolution in a Binational Context. Social Forces,83(3):919–948.
Gorard S., and Taylor, C., (2004). Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research.Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
Grinnell, Richard M., Jr., and Unrau, Yvonne A.
Eds., (2008). Social work research andevaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches, 8th ed. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.Hosek, J. et al.
(2002). The Employment and Earnings of Military Wives Compared with Thoseof Civilian Wives. RAND, National Security Research Division.
Johnson, S. et. al. (2007). The Psychological Needs of U.
S. Military Service Members and TheirFamilies: A Preliminary Report. American Psychological Association, pp.
1-67.McKinnish, T. (2008). Spousal Mobility and Earnings. Demography, Volume 45-Number 4,829–849.Shauman K. and Noonan, M.
(2007). Family Migration and Labor Force Outcomes: SexDifferences in Occupational Context. Social Forces, Volume 85, Number 4,pp.1735-1763.Trougakos, J. et.
al. (2007). Influences on Job Search Self-Efficacy of Spouses of EnlistedMilitary Personnel. Human Performance, 20 (4), pp.341-413.