This chapter examines and analyses the grounds for implementing PPP undertakings, Privileges for private sector engagement, success factors, and the negative factors impacting the execution of PPP undertakings in India. This has been achieved based on the responses from industrial experts. A questionnaire study was conducted with public and private sector professionals in India. The professionals were requested to bespeak their mark for the statements designed in the questionnaire. The consequences obtained were presented in bar-chart format.
5.2 Design of Questionnaire
A Questionnaire templet was designed in order to analyze the execution prosperity of PPPs in the Indian substructure industry. The respondents of the study questionnaire included industrial experts from the private and public sectors. These respondents were requested to bespeak their mark against each statement based on Likert graduated table ( 1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree ) . The professionals were selected based on two chief standards: ( 1 ) They should must hold sufficient cognition in the country of PPP ; and ( 2 ) They must hold work experience with PPP undertakings. The below figures show the figure of professionals per administration for which the questionnaire has been designed and the figure of professionals responded.
5.3 Questionnaire study consequences
This subdivision presents the sentiments of the different professionals who responded to the questionnaire. The sentiments collected for the four different statements were demonstrated and analysed by utilizing bar-chart format. In the below bar-charts, Y-axis represents the figure of respondents.
22.214.171.124 Grading of the grounds for implementing PPP undertakings in India
As in the questionnaire, a sum of five grounds for implementing PPP undertakings were marked by the respondents. From the above bar-charts ( Figure 5.3 to Figure 5.7 ) the top three grounds for implementing PPP undertakings can be graded as given below:
1 ) For bettering the fiscal system of the state
2 ) To promote private investing
3 ) For achieving superior quality of service
The top ground for implementing PPP undertakings as graded by the respondents was ‘For bettering the fiscal system of the state ‘ . The bulk of the respondents believed that PPP undertakings in the state are implemented to better the economic growing of the state. From the past 6-7 old ages many public substructure undertakings like airdromes, roads, and railroads were being implemented on PPP method. India has seen a rapid growing in the country of substructure development. Different professionals agreed that India can unleash its complete growing potency and grow at 9 to 10 per cent per annum by heightening the substructure installations ( Chirag, 2010 ) .
The 2nd ground graded by the respondents was ‘To encourage private investing ‘ . The private sector adds value to the substructure undertakings such as in fiscal matters and hazard sharing. From the Hyderabad international airdrome instance analyze it can be clearly seen that the equity portion of the private sector is 74 % . This shows that the private sector is supposed to play a first function in the future substructure roar. For constructing the substructure installations it is expected that 30 % of the entire investing should come from private sector entities.
The 3rd ground graded by the respondents was ‘For achieving superior quality of service ‘ . India being a developing state the quality of service provided for constructing the substructure installations is most critical. This feeling was reflected by the respondents as they believed this is besides one of chief ground for implementing PPP undertakings in the state. From the Pipavav Railway Corporation instance survey it can be supposed that company was supplying latest criterions of care for runing the railroad system for the motion of majority and containerized lading.
126.96.36.199 Grading of Privileges for Private sector ‘s engagement in PPP undertakings
Four privileges for Private sector ‘s engagement in PPP undertakings were marked by the respondents. From the above bar-chart consequences ( Figure 5.8 to Figure 5.11 ) the top three privileges can be graded as follows:
1 ) Government support
2 ) Tax benefits
3 ) Government assistance in funding
The top privilege for the Private sector ‘s engagement in PPP undertakings graded by the respondents was ‘Government support ‘ . The bulk of the respondents believed that this is the of import privilege for the private sector. In all the public substructure undertakings Indian authorities is keeping an equity portion and supplying financess to the undertaking. For illustration: In the instance of HIAL, Andhra Pradesh province Government provided a public grant of INR 1070 million, this allowed the private sector to affect enthusiastically in the undertaking. Furthermore in PPP undertakings the political, regulative and legal hazards were shared by the authorities, this will be the decisive advantage for the private sector.
The 2nd privilege graded by the respondents was ‘Tax benefits ‘ . The Indian Government ‘s strong focal point on encouraging substructure development broadens to revenue enhancement policy, with a figure of policy steps and inducements to the private party. For illustration in the instance of Hyderabad international airdrome, HIAL has received VAT alleviation from the Government for the period of 10 old ages. This facilitated the private sector to take long-run debt from the fiscal establishments for doing the undertaking successful.
The 3rd privilege graded by the respondents was ‘Government assistance in funding ‘ . India ‘s docket to promote PPP for substructure development intends at bettering the quality and quantum of substructure services guaranting that stakeholders receive a portion of benefits from the PPP undertakings. The VGF and IIFCL strategies support PPP to travel a long manner in building of immense substructure undertakings in the state. Hence, India Infrastructure Growth is on the right path to help development of allied sectors ( Infrastructure subdivision, 2005 ) .
188.8.131.52 Grading of the Factors that provide successful consequence of PPP undertakings
Five success factors for implementing PPP undertakings were marked by the respondents. From the above bar-chart findings ( Figure 5.12 to Figure 5.16 ) the top three critical success factors can be graded as given below:
1 ) Constructive legal docket
2 ) Committedness and answerability of private and public sectors
3 ) Allotment of hazards to the best parties
The top success factor graded by the respondents was ‘Constructive legal docket ‘ . This determination has implied that the current legal docket is good documented to manage PPP undertakings. Unnikrishnan, ( 2007 ) mentioned that a just and well-organized legal docket is an of import factor for successful execution of PPPs and economic development of the state. A translucent and stable legal docket would ease to do the contracts bankable. For illustration: In the twelvemonth 1995 Indian Government has introduced a new act called ‘National Highways Authority of India Act ‘ for the building, care, and operation of the National Highways. This act paved the manner for the successful result of PPP route undertakings in India ( Boeing and Satyanarayana, 2006 ) .
The 2nd success factor graded by the respondents was ‘Commitment and answerability of private and public sectors ‘ . For case consider the instance of HIAL, because of strong committedness and answerability from the both public and private sectors the undertaking was completed in a short clip and go successful.To obtain the success of PPP undertaking, both the populace and private sectors must convey their corresponding accomplishments and give their resources to achieve good association ( Planing committee, 2004 ) .
The 3rd success factor graded by the respondents was ‘Allocation of hazards to the best parties ‘ . More than half of the respondents expressed their sentiment favourably to this option. This could be the truth that in most of the Indian PPP undertakings the major hazards are being assigned to the strong private sector parties. The PPP theoretical account involves the allocation of broad scope of hazards between the authorities, stockholders and funding institutions.In apportioning hazard between the public and private sectors, it is necessary to hold an apparent methodological analysis ( Loosemore, 2006 )
Five factors which are keeping the execution of PPP undertakings were marked by the respondents. From the above bar-chart findings ( Figure 5.17 to Figure 5.21 ) the top three negative factors can be graded as follows:
1 ) Delays in dialogues
2 ) Lengthy command process
3 ) High charge to direct users
The first negative factor graded by the respondents was ‘Delays in dialogues ‘ . The bulk of the respondents believed that dialogues between and public and private sector causes terrible hold in PPP undertakings. For illustration: see the Pipavav railroad corporation undertaking, it can be clearly said that the undertaking got badly delayed in make up one’s minding the building understanding with the Western railroads. Consequently it took one and half twelvemonth to acquire the contract signed. Therefore the grant understanding must be prepared in such a manner as to cover all possible causes of ulterior amendments, go forthing minimal extent for renegotiation ( Department of Economic personal businesss, 2007b ) .
The 2nd negative factor graded by the respondents was ‘Lengthy command process ‘ . For immense PPP substructure undertakings, Indian Government was following International competitory command ( ICB ) procedure. This is a drawn-out procedure that incurs diverse costs on each phase for choosing the capable concessioner. In the twelvemonth 2007 National main road authorization of India ( NHAI ) could present merely seven undertakings out of 18 to the private concessioner. The cause for the slow public presentation was the hold in make up one’s minding the theoretical account grant understanding ( MCA ) for PPP undertakings ( Venugopal, 2009 ) .
The 3rd factor graded by the respondents was ‘High charge to direct users ‘ . Six respondents believed that by increasing the user charges, PPP undertakings were being badly affected. For case, In the HIAL undertaking there was a terrible resistance and unfavorable judgment from populace for imposing the user charges. The Government should earnestly see the regulative steps on user charges for protecting and safeguarding the public involvement.
This chapter presents the consequences of the questionnaire study looking at the grounds for implementing PPP undertakings, critical success factors, Privileges for private sector engagement and factors keeping the execution of PPP undertakings in India.
The consequences showed that the top three grounds for implementing PPP undertakings were: ( 1 ) For bettering the fiscal system of the state ; ( 2 ) To promote private investing ; ( 3 ) For achieving superior quality of service. Majority of the respondents felt that PPP undertakings are being implemented to better the economic system of the state.
The top three privileges for private sector ‘s engagement in PPP undertakings were: ( 1 ) Government support ; ( 2 ) Tax benefits ; ( 3 ) Government assistance in funding. This determination reveals that respondents ‘ puts emphasis on fiscal facets, which play a cardinal function for pulling private sector ‘s engagement in PPP undertakings.
The top three critical success factors graded by the respondents were: ( 1 ) Constructive legal docket ; ( 2 ) Committedness and answerability of private and public sectors ; ( 3 ) Allotment of hazards to the best parties. These success factors were found to be imperative for lending successful PPP undertakings in India.
The first three negative factors graded by the respondents were: ( 1 ) Delays in dialogues ; ( 2 ) Lengthy command process ; ( 3 ) High charge to direct users. These factors were found to hold a negative influence, which causes much hold in the execution of PPP undertakings.