In undertaking direction presenting the undertaking as stipulated clip in the contract is the most of import factor to be focussed by the contractor and the implementer. Time is one of the three factors in undertaking direction should be given precedence beside cost and quality. These three factors are related to each other and will give consequence if one of these factors neglected. Time appraisal has been identified as one of the cardinal public presentation to be addressed in supplying best value to building client. To foretell the building continuance of undertaking based variables which are building continuance, constructing type, procurement path, contractor choice method, type of client, contract value, constructing map and complexness of the edifice.Construction direction determinations are made based on agendas that are developed during the early planning phase of undertakings, many possible scenarios besides should be considered during building. Construction programmes are of extreme importance for a successful timely bringing of edifices or substructure undertakings.
A well developed undertaking agenda theoretical account is a dynamic tool that can be used to foretell when the undertaking work that remains to be completed can moderately be expected to be accomplished.There is no specific tool in finding the accurate clip for undertaking continuance patterns in JKR. Most of the undertaking continuance was based on old continuances of the undertaking which were non the same constituent of each undertaking. By utilizing the old experience it may non demo the right continuance for the undertaking.
From this appraisal of undertaking continuance JKR use the history of undertaking continuance based on the cost of the undertaking, the size of the undertaking, location and complexness of the undertaking. This method is used since the being of JKR. No specific method for estimation the continuance of the undertaking.It is of import that the undertaking execution agenda is planned so that it functions harmonizing to find other than completion on agenda without holds that could impact the other activities expected by the end-user.A Good agenda will guarantee the execution of realistic ; given adequate clip for activities such design blessing procurance, building, tests the line and so on.
AScheduling that fails to take into history the of import affairs will ensue in undertakings holding extension of clip, or termination.A This will impact the terminal user involve extra disbursals, including fiscal liability, employee resettlement and storage of equipment and jobs stock list. Delaies in the completion of an full undertaking due to hapless programming can besides make mayhem for proprietors who are eager to get down utilizing the constructed installations ( Gomar et al. , 2002 ) .
1.1 ProblemA Statement
Delivering the undertaking on clip as stated in the contract to the client is of import to JKR as an implementer.
The chief job in JKR ‘s current pattern is gauging accurate clip in JKR undertaking. Failing to present the undertaking on clip to the client will demo the public presentation of JKR. One of JKR ‘s aims is to present the full undertaking in clip as agreed with the client. Inaccurate clip appraisal will take to late completion of the undertaking.
Inaccurate clip appraisal will do the client extra operational cost.Incorrect in determine the undertaking continuance will demo the capableness of JKR as a proficient section in authorities. This is one of the grounds for undertaking to be given extension of clip ( EOT ) beside other ground such as the contractor selected can non give full committedness to the undertaking.
Base on the JKR ‘s record most of the undertaking will hold at least one EOT.From the informations provided by JKR Project Monitoring Unit shows that more than 50 % of the undertakings in Ninth Malaysia Plan supervised by JKR are completed behind clip. This shows that clip appraisal for those undertakings are non accurate. This survey will make a standard theoretical account to be used to gauge undertaking continuance.
Aim of the survey
The chief purpose of this survey is to develop appropriate mathematical theoretical account and schemes that can be used by the practicians to better current method of clip appraisal for JKR ‘s undertakings.
Aims of the survey
To accomplish this purpose, the following aims have been delineatedToA identifyA the factors that influence the completion clip of the JKR undertakings.To analyze the relationship between JKR ‘s estimated times with the existent completion based on 5 old ages historical informationsTo develop new mathematical theoretical account toward more accurate clip gauging for school undertaking by JKR.
Scope of the survey
This survey will utilize school edifice undertaking by JKR merely. Historical information for this survey will trust on undertaking that had been completed within past five ( 5 ) old ages.
Mathematical theoretical account that will be used is multiple arrested development technique. Other more progress technique will be employed as the research advancement and if found suitable.
The methodological analysis is divided into three phases.
The planning phase is where the subject of survey determines, purpose and aim is set. Besides that literature hunt is done to suit literature reappraisal.
Data Collecting Phase
At this phase the methodological analysis used in carry oning this survey is through literature hunt, informations aggregation and structured interviews with the professionals or adept panel who are involved in clip estimating of the undertaking and questionnaires study to JKR ‘s staff who straight involved in finding the clip of the undertaking.Data aggregation will be gathered from the undertaking as stated in the range of survey.
From the consequences, the questionnaires study will be conducted among JKR staff within the class of the survey to measure their sentiments of the findings towards the aims of the survey. Besides the questionnaires study some interviews has besides been conducted with the professionals as the adept panel, undertaking director, applied scientist and measure surveyor to measure their sentiments towards the findings based on informations that have gathered. The interviews are divided into face to confront inquiries and replies session and replying the structured questionnaires. The qualitative informations generated from the questionnaires have been analyzed utilizing statistical method and eventually illations were made to back up the survey findings.
Reporting and Validating Stage
At this phase a study will be produced based on the analysis done in 2nd phase. The new procedure created from the determination will be tested and validated by the expert and selected JKR staff who involve in the procedure.The overall sequence of survey procedure undertaken is shown in figure 3.
DATA COLLECTION STAGE
Coverage AND VALIDATING STAGE
Study TopicLiterature ReviewObjective ( I )ToA identifyA the factors that influence the completion clip of the JKR undertakings.Questionnaire Survey- to measure current pattern- to find factors that influence undertaking clip completionValidation of the theoretical accountDevelop mathematical theoretical account to show the relationshipInterview with Expert Panel- to find current pattern- to find the current procedureObjective ( two )To analyze the relationship between JKR ‘s estimated times with the existent completion based on 5 old ages historical informationsSpecifying Study Aim, Objective and ScopeDocument hunt about current patternObjective ( three )ToA developA newA mathematical modelA towardA moreA accurateA timeA estimatingA forA schoolA undertaking by JKR.To set up mathematical theoretical account to demo relationship between completion clip and factors that influence completion day of the monthReport and FindingValidation of the procedureFigure 1.1 Research Methodology Process
Scheduling PRACTICE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
A skill indispensable for good undertaking direction is accurate clip appraisal. There are two of import grounds to acquire clip estimations right:To drive the scene of date lines for planning and bringing of undertakingsTo steer in determine the cost of contract.It is of import to do clip appraisal as input into other techniques used to organize and construction all undertakings. Peoples ever neglected or undervalue the needful clip to implement undertaking.
It may cut down big undertaking to a series of smaller undertaking if a good clip appraisal technique is being used.An of import facet of Project Management is scheduling clip accurately. This is a critical constituent of Project be aftering as this will make up one’s mind the deadline for the completion of a undertaking, whether little, medium or mega. ( Suri et al. , 2009 )
Phase of Time Estimation
Time appraisal should be taken into history during planning of the undertaking. During this phase it is of import to put the mark day of the month for completion of the undertaking. However, a dependable estimation of the building clip at the early phases of design development will cut down uncertainness, supply a cardinal focal point for the design squad, and can turn out good to the overall direction of the building procedure ( Nkado 1992 ) .Prediction of building cost and clip is really of import to contract disposal as clip anticipation and cost organizing a footing for planning, monitoring, budgeting and judicial proceeding.
There are two methods of gauging building cost and clip.Harmonizing to available budget by the client and clip restraintthrough a elaborate analysis of work to be done and resources available, utilizing estimations of the clip and cost demands for each particular activityThe elaborate appraisal of building activities normally relies on the calculators ‘ experience and opinion to right construe undertaking and site information and do the best possible determinations. ( Alfred, 1988 )
Current Time Appraisal
With the usage of computing machine package, the appraisal of building clip can be determined.
This is despite the fact that a figure of computer-based clip calculating techniques have been developed through research and targeted to building professionals, including measure surveyors, for the intent of calculating building clip at early design phases ( Brandon 1990 ; Nkado 1992 ) .In some industries, there are books entering industry criterions for usage by cost and agenda calculators. In every industry country there will be a organic structure of cognition that associates the achievement of known work attempts with clip continuance. Interviewing those who have had experience with similar undertakings is the best manner to find how long things will truly take.
Construction clip demands the focal point of attending of all the cardinal participants in the building procedure and is frequently a footing for measuring the success of a undertaking and the efficiency of the undertaking administration. Alternate procurance attacks ( Masterman 1992 ; Turner 1990 ) facilitate the imbrication of design and building times.Scheduling is a procedure that anticipates the hereafter and the clip taken to finish the undertaking can non be anticipated precisely. There are techniques that can increase the likeliness of being close if planning and estimating is done side by side, the undertaking can be managed to accomplish the agenda by speed uping some attempts or modifying attacks to run into needed day of the months.Undertaking Manager is responsible in developing a undertaking agenda. Harmonizing to Project Management Institute ‘s Project Management Body of Knowledge defines a undertaking agenda as the planned day of the months for executing agenda activities and the planned day of the months for meeting agenda mileposts.
The pattern of agenda development purchases knowledge gained from activity definition, sequencing, and gauging to make a formal sequence of undertaking activities, the undertaking agenda, that outlines when needed work should get down, when it is expected to be completed, and who will make the work. Successful undertaking directors “ are those who can be after for the unexpected and are flexible plenty to suit the unanticipated. ” ( Needleman, 1993 )
Scheduling PRACTICE IN JKR
Time appraisal still the chief docket when JKR fixing for any new undertaking. It is really of import for public undertakings to be completed on clip, as the clients, users, stakeholders and the general public normally look at undertaking success from the macro position where their first standard for undertaking success appeared to be the completion clip ( Lim and Mohamed, 1999 ) . Construction clip public presentation mentions has identified that clip along with cost and quality are the three important success in building undertaking.
Literature reappraisal on building undertakings suggested that the common standard for undertaking success are by and large considered to be cost, clip and quality/performance ( De Wit, 1988 ; Wright, 1997 ; Arditi and Gunaydin, 1997 ; Frimpong et al. , 2003 ; Williams, 2003 ; Luu et al. , 2003 ) .
3.1 Time Estimation Practise by JKR
In undertaking direction clip is the of import standard in accessing the advancement of the building. Harmonizing to Nkado ( 1995 ) , building clip has been shown to be the most influential in the overall clip public presentation of undertakings. Experience is one of of import standard in scheduling procedure together with experience with general programming in the undertaking country. From the past experience of building undertakings showed that more clip was given during building.
These times was determined either by JKR or by the contractor depending on the type of stamp. The fixed continuance clip was determined by JKR or by the contractor. Their estimated continuance largely is based on their past experience and as a consequence, these appraisal were found to be inaccurate. As the building clip frequently has to be compressed in order to suit into the imposed clip restraints, there may be deficient buffer clip to get the better of unexpected breaks, or ”disturbances ” , to the planned agenda. ( Isaksson, 2005 ) . Practitioners prefer to trust alternatively on their experience or to mention to historical records of the clip public presentation of past undertakings ( Atkin et al. 1993 ) .
2 Consideration for Appraisal
In finding the accurate clip for the building undertaking, a few feature has to be consider. Data related to project features were:contract size ( in footings of ringgit Malaysia ) ;stamp type – three types of stamp, i.e. unfastened stamp, unfastened to bumiputra merely ( native Malay contractors ) or selective stamp ;command ratio ( the difference between awarded command and following lowest command ) ;command spread ( the difference between lowest and highest command ) ;per centum difference between awarded command and estimation ;excess undertaking cost ;figure of bidders ;size of contractor ( category A, category B, category C and category D and E ) ;undertaking complexness ( less complex, reasonably complex or extremely complex ) ;type of design and supervising ( undertakings both designed and supervised by appointive advisers, undertakings designed by adviser and supervised by authorities applied scientists, undertaking both designed and supervised by authorities applied scientists ) ;experience of contractors ( similar to the work tendered, comparable or other experience ) ; andundertaking regional location ( northern, western, eastern and southern part ) . ( Ahmad et al. , 2006 )A survey by Kumaraswamy and Chan ( 1998 ) indicated that six common important factors for both edifice plants and civil technology undertakings were hapless site direction and supervising, low velocity of determination doing affecting all undertaking squads, client initiated fluctuations, necessary fluctuations of plants and unequal contractor experience.
In finding undertaking clip a consideration on the characteristic and factors mention above must take into history. To acquire accurate clip appraisal, the above features and factors must be consider and take into history by the individual who making the appraisal.
This chapter accent the methodological analysis used in order to guarantee this surveyconforming to the aims that have been outlined. Methodology for this research is divided into three ( 3 ) phases. The phases arePlaning phaseData aggregation phaseReporting and Validating
4.1 Planning Phase
The planning phase is where the subject of survey determines, purpose and aim is set.
Besides that literature hunt is done to suit literature reappraisal. The initial subject was given by JKR base on the current state of affairs of clip appraisal procedure conducted. The subject was revised during treatment with the supervisor. The purpose and aims was determined base on