The to the value of over £630 million





The FA invests £60m into football
each year with approximately £38m going towards grassroots football. This
investment comes from the income made by the governing bodies broadcasts and
sponsorships. Every month approximately seven million people play some form of
the sport counting 3.9 million children. There are 125,000 FA-affiliated teams
playing in over 1,700 leagues. The FA Charity Programme is formulated to drive
funds into areas where it can directly play a beneficial role. There are four
partners in 2011; The Bobby Moore Fund, Street League, Action for Children, and
Coaching for Hope. The FA and the Football Foundation have developed more than
5,700 projects to the value of over £630 million to improve football

One of the governing bodies in
the modern day is the F.A (Football Association):

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Sport England is the governing
body that is responsible for investing, advising, and promoting community sport
in the country. Its goal was to get two million or more people to become more
active in sport and exercise by the year of 2012. The funding it gives comes
from the Government and the National Lottery, since 19994, it has invested a
grand total of over 2 billion Great British Pounds in lottery funds and 300
million quid from the government into sports in the country.

UK sport was created in 1996 and
is the United Kingdom’s organisation for development and progress of sport
within the country. It is responsible to the Department for Culture, Media and
Sport and uses the governments funding and plays as a distributor of National
Lottery grants. UK sport furthermore, is the official body that overlooks drug
testing of athletes in the United Kingdom on a regular schedule.

2 examples of National Governing
Bodies in the United Kingdom are; UK Sport
and Sport England.


Many of the governing bodies
initially had strong ties to the middle class during the 19th
century and in some instances elements of the links with the 19th
century still are around to this day.







Most sports including football
have international and national governing bodies that oversee the organisation
and structure of a sport. They all have appeared within the last 150 years to
develop and protect each and all sports, and depending on the governing body,
will depend on the attention for example the national governing bodies for
football will soulfully focus on football and nothing else. Some of the
organisations are only focused on certain competitions such as the Olympics or
the Commonwealth games. There is a National Governing Pyramid to help
understand the rules;

The teachers helped to
rationalise the ideas and encouraged their participation in the sports. There
was a theory that suggested that the school boys adopted the folk games then
adapted by the universities and then passed back down to the working class,
meaning they refined the game that the working class made and then passed back
down with new rules, this was called ‘The Theory of Downward Diffusion’ by Bale
in 1989. This theory has been recently criticised though, as it suggests tat
the working class didn’t play the modern sports until they had been remade and
refined by the middle classes, evidence suggested that this wasn’t always the
case and sports history is a dynamic subject. 
Many of the teachers were Christian and linked the feeling that you get
during and after sport was being a better Christian, this became known as
muscular Christianity meaning the playing sport for a higher purpose was
encouraged. Knowing the sport can develop; self-confidence, strength,
discipline, teamwork, and work ethic would mean that it would assist and
improve the nation and therefore was encouraged. This process of participating
in sport for a higher purpose was known as rational recreation.





Back in them days public schools
are private schools. The name public refers to the board of the governs that
ran the school, on the other hand state schools were free and some working
class young adults could attend. Like the economic and social changed that the
industrial revolution started there was also a rise in public school education.
These schools welcomed the sons of newly wealthy middle classes, doctors, high
ranking officers in the army and entrepreneurs. The key features of the public
schools were; they weren’t local, you had to pay, boys only, they had a harsh
regime, the teachers were young males, mainly rurally located and no common
curriculum, a couple examples of the public school was the Rugby school and
Malvern college. As there wasn’t a common curriculum teacher could teach the
pupils anything that they wanted the young men to learn. As they were typically
rural they usually had big playing fields also the boys used to re make the old
folk games that they had partaken in their local areas. As the young men came
from many different locations the rules and regulations they knew were all
different and were trailed and tested on the fields. Rules which were accepted
and deemed good were kept in the game and the bad ones were not.

National Governing Bodies known
as the F.A and the R.F.U were originally created by middle class men from
networks called ‘Old boys’. These networks were made after the men left their
universities and public schools, they were against players becoming
professionals, as the middle class controlled sports and they were Christians
they felt that becoming professional and making money from sport devalued the
process of playing as Christians believed playing sport made you closer to god
as tenuous as that maybe they still believed it, this was another example of
something called social control. The Times newspaper said, ‘The professional
takes pleasure in his business and is generally a capital fellow who’s only
failing is to spend improvidently what he earns easily’. This implies they were
also against it. Football was the only sport that accepted professional players
quickly, this was in 1885. Cycling on the other hand banned professionals from
head to head races and only let the, compete in time trials. Cricket although
allowed both professionals and amateurs but only an amateur could become
captain of the team.

Either way, sport had to develop
with the times, such as the long working hours so sport needed to fit its way
into the cramped living conditions and the increased disposable income. This is
an example of the relationship between sport and society. The changed consisted
of that parliaments changed the working conditions for the workers. These acts
eventually reduced the maximum working hours for the nation, and many employers
broke these regulations however. The major changed in working happened in the
schools and colleges across the nation too. The sons of the wealthy men were
responsible for the changed and the sport forms from being folk to being
modernised. As trains were introduced and used more frequently it made it
easier to get from one place to another to socialise or play sports.

2.       Modern
Historians believe that the sports forms adapted quickly to changes in society
and can present evidence to support this.

1.       Traditional
Historians believe that there was a decline in sport participation during this

There are two main historical theories
linking to what occurred in the early years of the industrial revolution which





The pre-industrial sport forms were
played local, they were cheap to play, very simple to run but dangerous, they
were also played at local feats and on holy days still and reflected the
society which was simple and chaotic. The industrial Revolution was the
creation of steam powered engines that eventually changed the fortunes of
England and the people who lived there creating more income which would help
sport develop further meaning locations and equipment would improve. The West
Midlands were at the heart of the industrial revolution. This meant the small
class of traders, small businessmen and layers suddenly became a lot more
important, then the new middle class which were entrepreneurial and invested
all their money into building new factories meaning workers had it better off
since then and become the dominant class in the three-tier system in society. All
the large factories were made into the house of steam powered engine which took
the nation by storm. The factories then had to attract sufficient workers from
the countryside to keep them moving forward because a lot of the people lived
in the countryside the factory owners had to attract the workers to Newley
developed towns.

Now moving on to the
Industrialisation period which was the year 1750-1850;

In Worcester and the city’s
newspapers quoted ‘rowdy gangs of youth, kicking each other shins and being
generally disruptive’, this implies that it was a hooligan game and was for the
lower class who liked to Brule and fight and there was no respect from the
players or spectators. Some of the wealthy people who owned lands set aside a
portion of land to limit the amount of destruction the games would make. The
limited games could still be played on pitches of 220 yards in length and be
played by more than 60 people at a time, they oppose would be craft and traders,
this is being some of the modern team’s names will have originated for example
Arsenal and Sheffield Wednesday. Arsenal were arsenal workers in Woolwich and
the Sheffield team were butchers who had Wednesdays of to play hence the
Wednesday in the name.  

Football comes from numerous
different sources. Games which were similar to one another are now called ‘Mob
Football’. The rules of all the different versions of football will differ. The
objective of the game could either be to get the ‘ball’ from the opposing
side’s area to your own area. The ball that was used was made out of many
different things, depending what was available for example, a leather bundle, a
pigs head, a bundle of rage or even a piece of clothing. The name of the game
varied as well this could depend on the equipment used or the area it was
played. The game would look foreign to the one we play today as there was no
geographical boundaries or no set number of players or teams. The could also
sometimes be no equipment, this was because there wasn’t any money earnt from
the lower class to put aside for things like sports as it wasn’t very important
alongside food and drink and items like clothing, furniture, and property. In
the early stages of the game there was no designated start finish times, they
would also only play on holy days (church days, weddings, and harvest) and only
men could participate. There were high risk injuries and sometimes even death.
Early versions of the game included the Haxey Hood Game, this is where the
residents would battle for possession of a hood or something similar, the aim
of the game is to push the hood into one of the local pubs. At this time
football wasn’t well respected, this wasn’t until the middle of the 18 hundred,
were many changed were made, Richard Mulcaster said ”Now commonly used,
thronging of a rude multitude, bursting of shins, and breaking of legs”.




The Functional sports where done
to try maintain a functional army, many of the men found the functional sports
to be more of a chore then actually partaking in sport and wouldn’t of enjoyed
it. Hunting and Fishing was essential as it was a way of providing food for the
people in the district. Although the lower class would be doing the functional
sports for more of a purpose and didn’t enjoy it, the noblemen actually played
it more as a sport as they was more inclined and thought themselves as better
men meaning they didn’t actually serve it as a purpose. On the other hand,
Recreational sports where played during work breaks and afterwards, they were
mainly agricultural sports, therefore they relied on the weather and the
seasons throughout the year. The majority of people who lived in the
countryside and worked in rurally based jobs will have participated. The sports
that were played required local materials such as sticks, tree-stumps and
stones as the lower class (peasants) who participated dint have any disposable
income to get proper equipment to play with. The rules varied from village to
village where the residents will change the rules to suit their area and

Functional and Recreational, the
functional sports where the sports that served a purpose and was the train you
for a specific job or task for example learning to fight for battle. The
functional sports where, Archery, Hunting, Fishing, Wrestling, Boxing, and Hare
Coursing. All these sports where to train someone as was done most days for
example archery was to train people to fire a bow and arrow in case they need
it if there is another invasion and the people who could fire the bow and arrow
would be useful for William and his men, Archery would have been practiced most
days and even after church. The recreational sports were played for fun and a
way to socialise with friends after work. The recreational sports were, Animal
Baiting, Versions of Cricket, Versions of Football, Running/Jumping games,
Dog/Cock fighting (Animal Fighting sports).

After things settled and people
become used to the new rules and society, this is where sport forms starting to
develop and originate. Sport forms between the year 1066 and the 18th
century can be split into two different categories with different purposes.
Depending on your class you would be limited to the sports you could
participate in and there would be no mixing under any circumstance of the
classes who are partaking in the sport. The two different categories were:

In 1066; after William the Duke
of Normandy invaded England after the battle of Hastings, he made many changed
to the structure of the English society which had a major impact on sports. The
Feudal system was then introduced, this is where a hierarchical system which
made more social control in what used to be lawless regions, meaning the areas
where very rough and didn’t follow rules and didn’t have any discipline and was
riddled with crime and danger. But, then the noblemen who followed the newly
founded King of England, William, controlled small sized portions of land as a
reward for serving the William in battle. The lands the controlled and the
people who lived there became the property of the nobles and would be have to
do anything they commanded. The streets where ruled by fear of the Noblemen as
they were big, strong and brutal, this brought discipline into the streets. The
result of sub-dividing the nation, William was able to maintain peace and
creating a structured society although many people didn’t agree or like him.

In this assignment I will be
describing and explaining the development of sport throughout time, starting
from the origin and how the sport has developed into what it is today. The sport
I will be doing is Football.