The highest single use is in making fertilizers (including ammonium sulfate and ‘spermatophyte’ essentially a mixture of calcium phosphate and calcium alphabet). It is also used in manufacture of detergents, and as a car battery acid The Industrial Process of Crude Oil Separating Crude Oil Fractional Distillation The crude oil is heated and passed in to a fractionating column which is Cole r at the top and hotter at the bottom. The crude oil is split into various fractions. How far up the column a particular hydrocarbon gets depends on its boiling p mint. Suppose a hydrocarbon boils at CHIC.
At the bottom of the column, the temperature is much higher than 1 CHIC and so the hydrocarbon remains as a gas. As it travels up through the column, the temperature gets lower. When the temperature falls to CHIC, that hydrocarbon will Start to turn to a liquid. It condenses and can be tapped off. The hydrocarbons in the petroleum gases have boiling points which are so 10 that the temperature of the column never falls low enough for them to coned nose to liquids. The temperature of the column isn’t hot enough to boil the large hydrocarbon s found in the fuel oil and this remains as a liquid.
Some of the fuel oil is fractionally distilled under reduced pressure. The residue at the end of all this s bitumen, which IS used in road making. Uses of the fractions All hydrocarbons burn in air (oxygen) to form carbon dioxide and water and release lots of heat in the process. They can therefore be used as fuels. For example, burning methane (the major constituent of natural gases): ……. Or burning octane (one of the hydrocarbons present in petrol): -+1 AH(I) If here isn’t enough air (or oxygen) you get incomplete combustion.
This leads to the formation of carbon (soot) or carbon monoxide instead of carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless and very poisonous. Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it combines with hemoglobin (the molecule which carries oxygen in the blood stream), preventing it from carry the oxygen. You are made ill, or even die, because not enough oxygen gets to the cells in your body. Petroleum Gases Petroleum gases are a mixture of methane, ethane, propane and butane which h can be separated into individual gases if required.
These gases are commonly use d as ALP(Equipped petroleum gas) for domestic heating and cooking Gasoline (petrol) As with all the other fractions, petrol is a mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points. Its use fairly obvious! Naphtha Naphtha is used as a source of organic chemicals for industry as well as a constituent of petrol. Useful molecules like ethane and propane can be made by cracking the naphtha. Kerosene Kerosene is used to fuel for jet aircraft, as domestic heating oil as ‘paraffin’ for small heaters and lamps.
Gas Oil (diesel oil) This is used for buses, lorries, some cars, and railway engines where the line hasn’t been electrified. Some is also cracked to make other organic chemicals and produce more petrol. Fuel Oil This is used for ships’ boilers and for industrial heating. Some of the fuel oil is also distilled again, under reduced pressure, to make lubricating oil, grease, wax (for candles) and bitumen. Bitumen Bitumen is a thick black material which is melted and mixed with rock chipping g to make the top surface for roads.
Food Chemistry Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and nonpolitical components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk as examples. It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and rotten, but it also includes areas such as water, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, food additives, flavors, and colors. This discipline also encompasses how products change under certain food processing techniques and ways either to enhance or to prevent them from happening.
An example Of enhancing a pro cues would be to encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms t hat convert lactose to lactic acid; an example of preventing a process would be stopping the browning on the surface of freshly cut Red Delicious apples using g lemon juice or other acidulate water. Water in food systems A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 5 in meat products to 95% in lettuce, cabbage, and tomato products. It is also a n excellent place for bacterial growth and food spoilage if it is not properly processed.
One way this is measured in food is by water activity which is very important in the shelf life of many foods during processing. One of the keys t food preservation in most instances is reduce the amount Of water or alter the water’s characteristics to enhance shellfire. Such methods include dehydration n, freezing, and refrigeration. This field encompasses the “physiochemical reminisces of the reactions and conversions that occur during the manufacture e, handling, and storage of foods”. Carbohydrates Comprising 75% of the biological world and of all food intake for human consumption, the most common known human carbohydrate is Sucrose.
The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a inconsiderate which possesses the properties of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio under a general formula of Cannon where n is a minimum of 3. Glucose is an example of a inconsiderate as is fructose. Combine them in the picture shown to the rig HTH and you have sucrose, one of the more common sugar products around. A chain of inconsiderate form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, Textron, agar, and Jonathan. Sugar content is commonly measured in degrees BRI.
Lipids The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively watermelons or monopole compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), affidavit derived phosphoric, spindling’s, glycoside and torpedoing, such as retinitis and steroids. Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some are flexible el, while others are rigid. Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely monopole.
Generally, the bulk of their structure is monopole or hydrophobic (“weathering”), meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic (“waterlogged”) an d will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them amphibole molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol, the polar group is a mere OH (hydroxyl or alcohol). Lipids in food include the oils of such grains as corn, soybean, from animal fat and are parts of many foods such as milk, cheese, and meat. They also act as vitamin carriers as well.
Food Proteins Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell and are very complex macromolecules. They also play a fundamental role in the struck and function of cells. Consisting mainly of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen , and some sulfur, they also may contain iron, copper, phosphorus, or zinc. In food, proteins are essential for growth and survival and vary depending up on a arson’s age and physiology (e. G. , pregnancy). Proteins in food are commonly found in peanuts, meat, poultry, and seafood. They are also involved in ELISE test for food allergy determination.
Vitamins Vitamins are nutrients ARQ aired in small amounts for essential metabolic reach titans in the body. These are broken down in nutrition as either water soluble (Vita min C) or fat soluble (Vitamin E). An adequate supply of vitamins can prevent diseases such as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of vitamins can produce nausea and vomiting or even death. Riboflavin (Vitamin BE), water soluble. Minerals Dietary minerals in foods are large and diverse with many required to function while other trace elements can be hazardous if consumed in excessive ammo ants.