The last part of this study is based onthe detailed and comprehensive discussion regarding results which delivered inprevious chapter 4; that elaborates about, the importance recognized for fiveconsumption motives (i.
e. health consciousness, food safety concern, personalconsumer traits, ecological motives and situational factors) through consumerinvolvement that enhance the purchase intention regarding food items.5.1.
1 Direct association of identifiedconsumption motives regarding food choices with purchase intention. In this study, the intention of consumers to purchasehealthy food products and identify the good quality of the food is determinedby customer’s attitude such as consciousness about health, concern on safety offood, environmental protection, situational factors and their personal traitsi.e. novelty seeking, prefer to interaction for suggestions during buying offood products.
That would be significantly increase by the customersinvolvement regarding food buying. The purchase intention has a positive andsignificant impact determined by each motive of food choices. These mentionedabove motives of food choices for the customers of food consumption weresignificantly positive relate with the direct and indirect relation of purchaseintention. As stated in prior studies (Teng & Lu, 2016) (Yadav & Pathak, 2015) (Mei-Fang, 2007) (Lee & Hwang, 2016) (Chen, 2007) (Shashi, Kottala, & Singh, 2016) (Hu, Huang, Zhong, M.Davison, & Zhao, 2016) (Yin, Chen, Du, & Wu, 2010) (Martinez & Jaeger, 2016) the impact of purchase intention with anygroup category of consumption attitude and behavior with respect to foodchoices has significantly significant relationship.
In this study it has beenconfirmed that the significant relation of purchase intention with motives ofconsumptions of food products and which have vital participation in the choiceof food behavior with the presence of consumer involvement that have beenincrease the chances of purchase intention.5.1.2 Direct association of identifiedconsumption motives regarding food choices with involvement of customers. The results of direct relationshipbetween customer’s food choice motives with customer involvement in this surveybased study elaborates that both have significant and positive impact. Theseresults that conducted in specific survey area were verify the past studiesresearches (Hemmerling, Hamm, & Spiller, 2015) (Hughner, Mcdonagh, Prothero, Shultz, & Stanton, 2007) (Michaelidou & Hassan, 2010) (Schleenbecker & Hamm, 2013) (Vermeir & Verbeke, 2006) (Yiridoe, Bonti-Ankomah, & Martin, 2005) (Jabs & Devine, 2006) (Lee K.
, 2010) (Akbari, Gholizadeh, & Zomorrodi, 2014) that specificmotives of food consumption of customers to choice or select the food itemsincluding, concern of food safety, consciousness about health, personalconsumer traits (i.e. novelty seeking, need for interaction, self efficiency)and situational factors (i.e. time pressure and peer influence) and ecologicalmotives; all have significant and positive relationship to the involvement ofcustomers with the selecting of food products. As confirmed that the consumerinvolvement regarding selection of food were perform a vital part in theseconsumption motives of customers to enhance the purchasing level and customerretention.5.
1.3 Indirect effect of individuallyfive consumption motives with purchase intention through consumer involvement;to enhance purchase intention regarding food choices.The identified consumption choices inthis study; individually have positive and significant relationship withpurchase intention regarding food items, that is maximize after the insertionof consumer involvement.
As concurs with the (Teng & Lu, 2016) health consciousness significantly associate with purchaseintention and have vital value in the process of selection of food and buying.That is significantly increased due to the participation of customerinvolvement between food choice motive and buying intention of food products.The respondents who have high concern about health conscious and prefer toattach themselves with health related activities and consumption of food basedon the values and inherent needs about health. (Hill & Lynchehaun, 2002); (Michaelidou & Hassan, 2010). The positive and significant resultsof this study regarding health consciousness confirmed the results of (Chen M.-F.
, 2007) survey research thatalso have strongly positive impact of consciousness about health to purchasingfood items with high involvement. Oneof the most vital credence factor ispersonal traits of customers in which included their self efficiency,preference for interaction and novelty seeking regarding selection of fooditems in this study that concern a significant positive impact on purchaseintention in the inclusion of involvement of customers. The results were nothighly consistence with the prior studies regarding customer’s personalpersonality traits.
As stated by (Mei-Fang, 2007) the observablenegative sign of the customer’s high involvement in interaction term topurchasing food in customer personal traits. It happened due to possible twocauses, first is that after the inconvenient and bad experience without beingeffected on customer’s positive behavior; the customer prefer high involvementregarding their self efficiency and novelty seeking would have minimal chanceto buy food product. And the second possible reason is caused by theinteraction level during buying food products still lower than the maximuminvolvement, elaborates that the willingness to purchase food items is high butlack of interaction is no longer influence to intention of consumer to purchaseof select food products as their requirement or need. After this, the customerspersonal personality traits would particularly used to control the highinvolvement of customers in food choices (Chen, 2007).But as mentioned previously; this could not deter to the maximizing of customerinvolvement during purchase food products with respect to customer personaltraits because often without involvement, individual’s choices of food haveless ability to create discrimination as compared to the inclusion ofinvolvement in purchasing food products. (Marshall & Bell, 2004) Asconcluded in this study the positively significant impact of food safety with purchasing of fooditems by including the involvement during buying behavior. As prior studies ithave been confirmed that the positive relationship is exist between bothfactors and appear as a most strong motive of the food consumptions becausequality of food and safety of food is more important as compared to its price (Kerin, Jain, & Howard, 1992). Furthermore, thecustomer’s concerns regarding safety have been examined as an important forincreasing the involvement of customers for paying attention on foodpurchasing.
The result of this study shows that the food safety might be highlyessential factor for customers in food purchasing exercise and as the paststudies results, it elaborates that the customers give attention and have beeninvolve to the characteristics such as ‘food should be natural, no artificialmaterial added’ (Lockie, Lyons, Lawrence, & Mummery, 2002) ‘avoid to mix any chemical stuff’ (Yin, Wu, Du, & Chen, 2010) and ‘safety of food'(Cerjak, Mesic, Kopic, Kovacic, & Markovina, 2010) are attracted to customers to involve withfood items and create the intention to purchase. Coincidently this is relatedwith (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) findings thatrevealing about the high level of concern of customers regarding safety of foodbased to decreases and avoid the risk of food safety issues by consuming fooditems. Hence, it were proved that the high involvement of respondents with foodbuying that is significantly related with customer’s values, preferences andneed for safety of food. Therespondents of this survey study who are highly involved and strongly awareabout the importance of the ecologicalmotives such as environmental protection and ethical concern/animalwelfare; it have been determine conducting strong enough involvement with foodpurchasing. The outcomes of this study elaborates that the ecological motiveswere highly concerned for respondents, that is consistent among other variousfindings of the researches (Lee K. , 2010) (Chen, 2007)(Hjelmar, 2011) but it is not necessarily that thesefindings are implemented on all type of culture regarding virtual value, that’swhy the findings might be inconsistent in past surveys (Zagata, 2012) (Zakowska-Biemans, 2011). Some contradictoryoutcomes of the findings regarding the effect of environmental protection andethical concern on food items can be possible due to the differentiation ofvirtual values and culture related to food terms and types in differentcountries.
(Aertsens, Verbeke, Mondelaers, & Huylenbroeck, 2009). For example, asstated by (Chryssohoidis & Krystallis, 2005) in Greece theenvironmental protection or friendliness are not considered to be as importantfactor and it have been identified that the ethical concern like animal welfarealso not affected on the intention and decisions about food buying but itidentified widely in other aspects. (Zakowska-Biemans, 2011). Nevertheless,further it was claimed by (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) that the importanceof ecological motives for those ethical customers who more prefer to haveethical food products, which would based on the values of customers withcultural, social and ecological principles. (Strong, 1996). Therefore, it has been confirmed by (Bezençon & Blili, 2010) that the high levelof individual concern with environmental like ethical and protection aboutproduct purchase intention pointing out the high level of involvement. Thepositive and significant results of this study confirms by the previous surveyresults, that elaborates the customers of Pakistan have high concern about theenvironmental and ethical protection of food making; this association is moremaximize after the customer involvement based on ecological values, norms andbeliefs in their daily food intake decisions.
Additionally,the effect of situational factor inthis study found the highly and strong impact during the food choices andintention to buying. Due to the situational factors, such as time pressure andpeer influence has been directly impact on the decision making regarding foodproducts in Pakistan. But this result are inconsistent with some studies due tothe cultural virtual values that are different from some other countries; asstated that it may not supported to positively with purchasing behavior (Jabs & Devine, 2006) , the time scarcitylike the pressure of not enough time to selecting, preparing food andidentifying the good quality food has been change the consumption decision.Some kind of consumers was preferred the convenient food as stated by (Celnik, Gillespie, & Lean, 2012) in the shortage oftime and purchase from not their specific food products, they are not boundunder the lack of time and increase the purchasing level overall, according tothe convenient food is most popular but the high involved customer must concernabout taste, healthiness and freshness of the convenient food that they takenin shirt time (Candel, 2001) (Dave, An, Jeffery, & Ahluwalia, 2009) As the results in (Kaman Lee, 2010) the peer influence is the strong andpositively significant factor to increase the level of distinguishing betweenpure organic food and functional food (contains artificial vitamins andnutritious) and then maximize the purchase of food. The peer including friends,parents and other mates could be as a role model for those consumers whomotivated from other’s choices and seeking about new information andobservational learner about the daily intake food items, after discussion theygoing to purchase new food; by this the customers playing high involvement toshow concern related with good food. (Cullen, Baranowski, Cosart, & Moor, 2001) (Millstein, Petersen, & Nightingale, 1994) (Smith, Menon, & Sivakumar, 2005) (Tufte, Rasmussen, & Christensen, 2005).
As stated inmajority researches that the situational factor 5.1.4 Impact of customer involvement asmediator to increase purchase intention regarding food items. The survey of this study contained the consumer involvement as amediation factor and the results shown the significant and positive mediationhas been occurred between each identified motives of consumptions regardingfood choices and purchase intention of the food items. This happened orpossible after the significant relationship occurred between consumerinvolvement and purchase intention; as well as between consumer involvement andidentified food consumption motives. Theconsumer involvement’s effect on the intention of food toward purchase has beenobserved, highly significant and positively related. The high level ofinvolvement of customer regarding food products highly tent toward purchase intention,(Bravo, Cordts, Schulze, & Spiller, 2013) the results of thissurvey also confirm that the consumer involvement perform as a mediating factor between purchaseintention and five identified food consumption motives.
These finding are consistent with some past research studies in which theconsumer involvement act as a mediation (Thøgersen, Jørgensen, & Sandager, 2012) (Aertsens, Verbeke, Mondelaers, & Huylenbroeck, 2009) (Vermeir & Verbeke, 2006). Furthermore, theresults reveal that the consumer involvement especially in buying and selection of food enhance the linkbetween food consumption motives and purchase, for example involve gatheringinformation related to food.