The scripture” (Citron, Gender & the Musical Canon,2000).

‘canon’ is a model that can be used to understand, interpret and teach music
history. It is a general, law, rule or criterion by which something is judged.
There are many different aspects to the ‘canon’, as to why it would be a useful
model to use and why maybe it isn’t the right model to use. The ‘canon’ is
mainly dominated by male composers but women have made a considerable impact on
musical history although they have not been appreciated through the Canon of
Western Music.


those who are not aware of the ‘canon’ it can be described in many forms, as
stated in Marcia J. Citron, Gender & the Musical Canon, “an authoritative
list of books accepted as Holy scripture” (Citron, Gender & the Musical
Canon,2000).  A question asked by many is
that if the ‘canon’ is a pre-existing model that works on its on or through
inputs of work so that it can be used so others can benefit. A musical canon is the music of the great composers through history
and a range of music from different places, styles and cultures. By using canon
to teach music history can lead to the restriction of choice of music and the
exploration and experimentation of music and sound in general. By using a canon
to teach music history means that we would have to be going with what has
already been created and therefore have to follow the similar rules or similar
sounds, meaning it doesn’t allow for us to think outside of the box. Also,
canon can mean that we miss the essential aspects of instrumentation and their

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reason as to why the ‘canon’ is mainly dominated by male composers is because
as previously said that


question of how women have had an impact on musical history is in fact that
they have not. They have had a very little appreciation through the building
and reputation of the ‘Canon’ of Western Music. This all comes down to women
not having a role within society, unlike now a day, therefore they were unable
to have an impact on musical history. This being the case, it does not mean
that they have not seen success as composers or musicians but because of the
canon having a core foundation of male composers it has resulted in women being
unaccomplished in the canon of Western music. Before the time of Clara Schumann
there were female composers who had their works going through print or had them
being performed alongside well accomplished composers and musicians such as
Mozart and Haydn. Though their success was thought of around their time, by the
time Clara Schumann was looking to be inspired, these very successful females
had been long forgotten about. In this case females were unable to have an
impact on musical history as they were unable to carry their success through to
others that could have held female their success as composers and musicians
right through. (


history, there are very few females who are accomplished within the world of
music. From the few female artists who are in circulation, Clara Schumann is
one who has been admired by many. She was born in 1819 and died in 1896. She
was around during the time where women, except from singers, rarely performed
in public or composed their own music, but Clara Schumann was one who did both.
One of the main impacts she has had upon society is that she was a very strong
influence on bringing back eighteenth century keyboard music for the public to
be aware of. She was all for influencing the music of other composers but her
own compositions remained unknown until around mid way through the twentieth
century but still many of her original compositions are privately owned by
collectors as they were unpublished. Due to this the public cannot appreciate
the achievements of Clara Schumann’s compositions to the full extent. (
Clara Schumann was a very talented composer after writing her Piano Concerto
when she was only fourteen years old but she lost a great deal of confidence in
herself and felt as though she had lost her creative talent and believed that
no woman has been able to have the desire to compose. I feel that this could
come down to being the fact that women were underrated as having a gift and as
said before they were not considered to be part of the canon. ( ). This has greatly allowed Clara
Schumann to impact on musical history as she, as well as many others, were able
to show a great deal of talent through composing and performing. Although she
was able to break the limitations of what women were not commonly seen doing,
and had an effective impact, it was still undermined by many due to them not
being part of the canon of Western Music. As said in M. J. Citron, Gender &
the Musical Canon, “For a complex set of reasons women have generally been
omitted or excluded; thus the canon is still overwhelmingly male in its
membership.” (M. J. Citron, Gender & the Musical Canon, 2000).


female composer who has had a success through their talent in composition is
Fanny Mendelssohn, who was born in 1805 and died in 1847 at a young age of 41.
She was always referred to as Felix Mendelssohn’s sister which automatically
made people think less of her. Again, like other most other female composers,
she was rarely mentioned in any history books. (


in conclusion, women have had a significant impact in musical history due