Cladding system is a system which acts as decorative or protective coverings for walls, roofs, or ceilings. These coverings will non organize portion of the burden bearing construction of the edifice. The chief map of the facing system is to supply enclosure to edifice. Besides that, it besides used to adorn the edifice. There are many types of stuff used in the facing system. In this undertaking, I would wish to discourse about Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement ( GRC ) and unstained steel.
Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement ( GRC )
Glass Fibre Reinforced Cement or GRC is one of the fiber reinforced concrete. There are few typees of fiber reinforced concrete like steel fibers reinforced concrete and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete. This stuff chiefly used in the building of the facing system. It is a composite stuff which is consists of Portland cement, silicon oxide sand and H2O, and so assorted with the base opposition spectacless. The glass fiber is introduced into the cement mix for transporting the tensile force. As we know, the concrete is strong in compressive strength but weak in tensile strength. So, the debut of the glass fiber will increase the tensile strength. GFRC is nonstructural and can non back up any parts of the edifice.
Advantages of GFRC:
GFRC is really strong, tough and non easy cleft. Furthermore, it has high flexural strength up to 4000 pounds per square inch or 27600kPa. It besides has higher tensile strength comparison to the field concrete due to presence of glass fiber.
2. Light Weight
GFRC is a really light stuff. It has 20 % of the weight of precast concrete, so it can minimise the burden of the edifice. Besides that, it can be produced in thin subdivision which makes GFRC a suited stuff for edifice frontages. The lighter weight of GFRC makes concrete panels cheaper and it will be easier to transport and put in in as the cladding system of the edifice. Installation period will be shorter because it is easier to manage.
3. Noise Protection
GFRC besides have been used to do noise barriers. Theoretically, province panels which have thickness around 10mm and surface mass 20kg/m2 can accomplish sound insularity by 30dB. So, it fulfills one of the functional demands of cladding system which is the sound insularity.
One of the feature of GFRC is nonflammable. When it is exposed to the fire, it will work as a thermic regulator to protect stuff from acquiring firing and avoid the fire from spread. So, it is a good stuff to be used in constructing cladding system due to its fire opposition belongingss.
GFRC is reinforced internally, so it does n’t necessitate other type of support which is hard to put in complex form. Not like the conventional concrete, steel reinforcement saloon may eat or corrode and take to the failure of the concrete. GFRC will non corrode or eat. So, it is safety.
6. Good Surface
GFRC has a really smooth surface because it is sprayed on. The surface will non hold nothingnesss and bugholes. It is of import for cladding system because it provides esthetic value to the edifice.
Fiber coating makes GFRC lasting because it unaffected by environmental consequence and besides invulnerable to corrosion onslaughts. Less care will necessitate for the facing system which use GFRC as chief stuff.
GFRC can be easy cast to any form of columns, wall panels and castings. Furthermore, it can supply in many colorss and forms. This provides great design flexibleness to the interior decorator.
9. Environment Friendly
Glass fiber which used in production of GFRC normally comes from recycled beginnings. The coatings are ecologically friendly because no toxic or pollutants will be give-off during the production of GFRC. It will carry through the green edifice construct and no pollutions will be caused.
Disadvantages of GFRC:
As comparison to the conventional concrete, GFRC will be more expensive. This will increase the cost of the edifice if this stuff used in the facing system of edifice.
Stainless steel is produced by debasing steel with Cr which if present in sufficient measures ( more than 10 % ) , forms a coherent, self-healing oxide movie on the surface of the metal. The presence of Cr in metal makes the metal opposition to corrosion.
1. Resistance to corrosion
The presence of Cr makes unstained steel non easy being oxidized. It means it is non so easy to eat or corrode. It can defy the onslaught of the conditions and the high humidness environment. These belongingss besides make unstained steel lasting. So, it is a good stuff sued in cladding system.
2. High ductile strength
High ductile strength of chromium steel steel make it easy shaped or set. It is really suited for cladding system because it can be redesign to any form which meets the demands of interior decorator.
3. Fire opposition
Stainless steel has better fire opposition in the metallic stuff. It has about 800 A°C critical temperature. It meets one of the functional demands of cladding system which is fire opposition.
Stainless steel has really good surface which can provides high aesthetic value to edifice. It has different surface coatings from flatness to bright. The profusion of coloring material of unstained steel makes it attractive. Besides that, it can be tinted and become really beautiful. This is the 1 of the ground Kuala Lumpur City Centre ( KLCC ) usage unstained steel as one of the stuff of the facing system.
Stainless steel is really easy to clean and normal cleansing agents like detergent will non damage the surface. So, the care to the facing system which is utilizing unstained steel is less.
Stainless steel can be recycled boundlessly. It can be continuously reused and will non do environmental job. It besides fulfills the construct of green edifice.
Question 1 B. Describe two types of bomber surface drainage system for domestic use.
Drain is the construction which is taking the surface and sub surface H2O from an country. In a building undertaking, drainage will be installed foremost before the edifice is precisely built. There are two types of drainage system which is surface drainage system and sub surface drainage system. Surface drainage system chief intent is to take the H2O from surface of route or paving. As comparison to the surface drainage system, sub surface drainage system is utilizing belowground pipes of other adjustments from the edifice to other topographic points. Normally, this system deals with disgusting H2O which comes from the edifice like kitchen wastes. In this undertaking, I would wish to depict two types of bomber surface drainage.
Underground pipe line
Underground pipe line system can be used to cover with sewerage or storm H2O. Storm H2O has the same definition as surface H2O which comes from showery H2O. There is a batch of stuff which used to do drainage and sewer pipe such as glassy clay, uPVC, concrete, cast Fe ( CI ) and asbestos. Besides that, Glass Reinforced Plastics ( GRP ) and high denseness polythene ( HDPE ) besides are the stuff used in the production of the pipe. Different stuff will bring forth different characteristic pipe. Below is the tabular array which shows the feature of the pipe made from different stuff:
Cast Iron ( CI )
-high tensile strength
-tough to defy harm
-tend to corrode
-large grapevine widening over great distance
-can withstand force per unit area and more burden
-no easy checking or interrupting
-large grapevine widening over great distance
-ease of managing
-good in chemical opposition
-lower tensile strength
-non-resistance to the temperature alteration
-short distance or place used
-strong in tenseness and compaction
-cheaper comparison to press
-may failure if the fiber failure
-used widely in sewerage and H2O grapevines
-not suited for big grapevine
-lighter weight but no light as plastic
-good in resist the onslaught by a batch of substance include acid and base
-used widely in sewerage and H2O grapevines
There are two types of jointing of pipes which are field ended pipes and socketed pipes. For field ended pipes, they have indistinguishable terminals and will be joined by matching. For socketed pipes, they have different terminals which is ‘female ‘ and ‘male ‘ . To do connexion, different terminals will be connected.
Trench digging will be transport up to supply the working infinites and besides the bedclothes around pipes. Different types of bedclothes will necessitate for different types of pipes stuff. For stiff pipes like pottery pipes, selected fill will be above the pipes with the thickness to 150mm. For flexible pipes like plastic pipes, besides the selected fill, an excess bed will be filled with thickness 100mm. The chief intent of the bed is to cut down the emphasis imposed and to avoid the pipes from interrupting. For puting pipes, pipes will be laid to a steady gradient. For advanced engineering, laser line will be used to do certain the gradient is accurate. For surface H2O drainage, the minimal gradient ratio is 1:100 ; for disgusting H2O drainage, the ratio will be 1:40.
Besides the grapevine, adjustments and entree point besides are installed at few places like caput of tally, crook or alteration of way and besides alteration in pipe diameter. Gully or hopper installed as the entree point to roll up the surface H2O along the paving.
Manhole, entree point & A ; review chamber
The chief map of manhole and review chamber is to hive away the disgusting H2O and defy the entry of land H2O and rain H2O. Access chamber is one of the constituents in this system. It provides simple entree for casual review and besides entree for drain rods or other care equipment. Normally, the deep of entree chamber will non transcend 600mm. For review chamber, it is larger than entree chamber and has minimum 450mm diameter. One of the maps of review chamber is to supply entree for care equipment but it will hold more subdivisions as comparison to entree chamber. It normally can up to 1000mm deep. Manhole will be the largest chamber to supply entree to the care equipment. The deepness of the manhole is non limited but at least 1 meter deep. The minimal diameter will be 600x900mm. Normally, manhole can be found in urban country under street which is covered by a metal home base. Manhole besides designed to allow the entry of a adult male. Normally, the distance between review chamber will greater than 45m. For manhole, the distance will greater than 90m
Types of Manhole
1. Brick Manhole
It is constructed by utilizing brickwork which is bonded utilizing English bond. The thickness of brick is 215mm.
2. Precast Concrete Manhole
Precast concrete manhole normally has merely 50-60mm midst. It is good for rapid building because the building of brick manhole will devour a batch of clip. Besides that, it normally built in round subdivision or rings.
Question 1 c. Briefly describe the map of route and paving.
Normally, route and paving will be built after the services, drainage system and canals have been completed. For impermanent entree on site, the route will be constructed earlier. The surface of route and related building is known as paving. Pavement is a surface stuff laid down on an country which to supply a bed to prolong the traffic. Pavement besides can be say is the surface which is protected by an sheathing of treated stuff with limited emphasis on the land is intended for traffic and dirt. Different types of route will hold different design such as normal individual 2-lane residential /access route must hold minimal 5.5m breadth. For chief distribution roads to big residential estates, the breadth of route normally is about 6 to 6.75m. Some private entree or thrusts, it has merely 2 to 3m breadth of route.
Function of route and paving:
1. Supply level and smooth surface for a comfy and easy journey
The chief map of the route is to supply a level surface to allow the user of route to hold a smooth and comfy journey. Accident may happen if the surface of route is full with nothingnesss and holes and it will increase the trouble of driving. Besides that, if the route surface is non smooth and level, user of the route may confront jobs with the tyres of vehicles will failure. It is unsafe to the user of the route.
2. Transportation and dispersed transit burden to the land
One of the maps of route is to reassign and administer the traffic burden which comes from vehicles to the land. Construction of route demand to do certain the route can defy a really heavy burden like the truck, lorry and others vehicles. The transit burden can damage the land if there is no route. It may do holes and nothingnesss on the land. Normally, the top bed of the land is merely top dirt which full with organic affair, so it is non plenty tough to defy really heavy burden like truck or lorry which is transporting a batch of things. When the truck base on balls by the top dirt, the top dirt may be will precipitated and nothingnesss will organize. Therefore, route will move as protective bed to protect the land by distributing the burden.
3. Avoid the land surface being harm by conditions consequence
Weather consequence like rain, snow will do the land surface become unstable and it may harm the user of the land surface. For illustration, the H2O from the rain may organize ponding, the surface will go non level and it will do jobs to the user of the land surface. The aims of the route are to protect the land surface being affected by this sort of conditions consequence and to supply a level surface to the vehicles. If the rain H2O is being absorbed into land, H2O tabular array of the land will lift and this will do the land unstable. Ponding besides will do the surface full with nothingnesss and holes. Therefore, the route must be constructed.
Question 1 d. Cellular concrete roofing units, paving sheathings, span decks airport tracks, force per unit area vass, blast-resistant constructions, tunnel liners and ship-hull building are some application of peculiar fibre support concrete. Stipulate the type of the fiber with features comparing with conventional concrete.
All those building work mentioned above is considered as heavy construction work, strong and tough fiber support concrete must be chosen as the chief stuff for building. Bridge decks, airdrome tracks or ship-hull building are necessitating a really stiff and tough stuff due to its heavy burden. Steel fibre support concrete will be the most suited stuff in this instance. Glass fibre support is non suited because it is non-structural which means it can non back up heavy burden.
Steel fibre support concrete ( SFRC )
Steel fibers reinforced concrete or SFRC is concrete comprises cements which contains harsh sums and mulcts with the steel fiber. Unlike common reinforced concrete which uses the support saloon, steel fibers are added into the concrete. Fibre will work to forestall the growing of cleft to propagate inside the concrete if there is any checking occur. Therefore, the steel fiber ailment strengthen the concrete. So, it is really suited to utilize at haeavy construction building.
Concrete is composite which is incorporating cement, coarse sums, H2O and chemical substance. Water reacts with the cement and bond will organize in between other substance. So, concrete will be produced. Concrete is the most of import stuff in building industry. Harmonizing to Wikipedia, in twelvemonth 2006, around 7.5 three-dimensional kilometres of concrete are made. Concrete has really high in compressive strength but it is weak in tensile strength.
Comparison between Steel Fibre Reinforcement Concrete and Conventional Concrete
Steel Fibre Reinforcement
-High due to the presence of steel fibers which is forestalling the cleft from propagate in concrete
-Can be increased by install support saloon
-Lighter comparison to concrete
-Increase 1.5 to 3.0 times compare to concrete
Capability of withstand burden
-Higher than conventional concrete
-Low because concrete is brickle
-Can be cast in any form in
-Can be cast in any form on
-Time devouring due to the procedure of doing concrete until bring arounding procedure
-around 1.5 to 5.0 times than conventional concrete
-1.6 times than conventional concrete
-1.25 to 2.0 times than conventional concrete
-slightly higher than conventional concrete which is 1.2 times to protect the concrete from heavy responsibility scratch
-Minimal of steel fibers surface can be reduced the rust
-No corroding for unreinforced concrete
As comparison to conventional concrete, steel fibers reinforced concrete has more benefits. One of the chief benefits is the cost. Steel fibre reinforced can salvage the stuff cost because it is more lasting as comparison to the conventional concrete. The impact opposition of the SFRC is higher than the conventional concrete and it will take to the longer life span. In the term of life cost rhythm, it will cut down the care fees. For conventional concrete, it may necessitate higher care cost because it is brickle.
Strength of the SFRC is higher than conventional concrete. It is more lasting excessively. We can see from the tabular array the shear strength, impact opposition, and weariness opposition shows that SFRC will be stronger than conventional concrete. It is lighter but still really tough.
In decision, in Malaysia building industry, steel fibers reinforced concrete seldom used in building undertaking. Acceptance toward this advanced engineering merchandise still decelerate in gait even though this stuff has been introduced about 30 old ages. European states are utilizing this stuff in their building undertaking like airdrome, tunnel and other heavy construction building.