With the coming of globalization of economic systems, endeavors confront an increasing figure of challenges. Peter and Laszlo ( 1996 ) pointed out that endeavors are more regarded as merchandises. In this sense, endeavors should accommodate to assorted sorts of alterations in order to maintain consistence, otherwise they will neglect in the market. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that all challenges endeavors face trigger the demand for enterprise architecture.
The term ‘architecture ‘ first comes from edifice and building. It can depict a maestro program of edifice or building which contains two parts, one is general layout such as how its suites and stairwaies will be put together, and other one is rules such as its form. The architecture provides a holistic design of edifice, pretermiting some inside informations, such as colorss, stuffs and so on.
The term ‘architecture ‘ can be besides applied in the field of endeavors. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) defined enterprise architecture as “ a coherent set of descriptions, covering a regulations-oriented, design-oriented and patterns-oriented position on an endeavor, which provides indexs and controls that enable the informed administration of the endeavor ‘s development and success. ” In other words, enterprise architecture provides an abstract and conceptual construction of be aftering for endeavor which consists of a sequence of activities. All rules, methods and theoretical accounts which are offered by endeavor architecture are the logic for cardinal concern procedure.
Successful concern can non last without aid of appropriate architecture. Marc ( 2009 ) noted that endeavor architecture compasses the cardinal factors of administrations, and compared with specific solutions for the jobs, cardinal factors is much more applicable. That is, bulk of jobs can be solved by using these cardinal factors instead than specific solutions. Cardinal factors are able to face a wide array of jobs. However, specific solutions can simply work out a particular job. Consequently, enterprise architecture makes a great part to keep the cardinal factors of the concern.
Components of endeavor architecture
Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that endeavor architecture plays an of import function in implementing concern scheme successfully for administration. Enterprise architecture offers a general program for administration which can unify scheme with current undertakings. More significantly, Marc ( 2009 ) noted that five constituents should non be ignored in endeavor architecture, which are stakeholders and concerns, rules, theoretical accounts, positions and models. The constructs of five constituents will be unfolded in the undermentioned subdivision.
2.1.1 Stakeholders and their concerns
Assorted stakeholders are an built-in portion of an endeavor. Stakeholders have different degrees of involvement on development of an endeavor. Martin, Erik, Maarten, Jeroen and Claudia ( 2009 ) pointed out that stakeholder is an single, group, or administration who are involved in the administration ; more significantly, they have an involvement on development of endeavor. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) besides pointed out that concerns refer to involvements of stakeholders, who focus on future development of commercial or industrial endeavors. Specifically, stakeholders who are involved in the endeavor ever pay close attending to the hereafter development of endeavor, because operation state of affairs of the endeavor straight associates with benefits of stakeholders.
Stakeholders and their concerns are built-in portion of endeavor architecture. Furthermore, Stakeholders and their concerns are critical for endeavor development. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that stakeholders are eager to understand the possible hazards of an endeavor which will hold an impact on way of endeavor. In other words, when stakeholders are required to do a determination refering way of endeavor, it is critical to understand the current and possible jobs. More significantly, concerns of stakeholders will to great extent depend on the above jobs.
Principle is another constituent of endeavor architecture. Marc ( 2009 ) pointed out that rule is the behaviour regulation of administration, which leads to every determination leader makes. That is, rules play an of import function in endeavor, and all determinations are governed by rules.
Principles can be seen from different facets. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) summarised rules can be understood from two facets, one is sing rules as compulsory jurisprudence, the other is sing rules as guidelines. From the position of compulsory jurisprudence, Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that everyone in this administration must stay by the Torahs, policies and ordinances. For illustration, endeavor should protect privateness of clients, client foremost etc. From the position of guidelines, Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) besides noted that rules can play a function as manager. Guidelines provide some counsel which can do all behaviors standardised. At the same clip, these guidelines besides meet the specifications of compulsory Torahs. For case, ‘do non expose personal information through Internet ‘ is a guideline, which besides abide by compulsory Torahs about protecting personal information.
By and large, theoretical account is a conjectural description of a complex entity or procedure. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that theoretical accounts are used to stand for a system from a different manner ; the purpose is to depict the bing system more graphic. In other words, theoretical accounts are the representative signifiers or forms for a specific procedure.
Models have assorted forms. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that theoretical accounts can be displayed by graphical and non-graphical diagrams, more significantly, an progressively figure of theoretical accounts have been used in enterprise architecture. In endeavor architecture, different theoretical accounts can clearly reflect missions, visions, focal points and ends from different degrees. That is, theoretical accounts are able to depict concern procedure from broader scope for an endeavor. For illustration, theoretical accounts can depict different aspects of an endeavor: from missions via services, commercials and processes to information system.
Positions besides play an of import function in enterprise architecture. IEEE Computer Society ( 2000 ) defined position as an overview of a system which contains all the relevant sets of concerns. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that positions can concentrate on specific stakeholders and their concerns which can take all stakeholders and their concerns into consideration. That is, position is a set which gather all sorts of concerns from stakeholders.
In fact, implementing endeavor scheme can non last without positions. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that using endeavor scheme is a tough occupation. In fact, endeavor scheme should be aligned with concern procedures, sections, stakeholders and information system. Enterprise architecture, as a holistic design of endeavor, should be able to expose this tough occupation. However, a set of theoretical accounts can non depict all the relevant stakeholders and their concerns. Hence, positions are indispensable which can be seen as a addendum to the theoretical accounts.
Framework is an implicit in construction when it applied to enterprise. Marc ( 2009 ) noted that model is a logical construction which is of great importance to all the stakeholders and future development of the endeavor. With this logical construction, all the descriptive representation of an endeavor can be categorised and organised successfully. In add-on, model is a good method for designer. Martin et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that model with logical construction is utile for designers to take positions. A wide of information will be organised by different degrees of model.
How enterprise architecture support and inform concern scheme
It is clear that set up a successful endeavor is a complicated procedure. Marc et Al. ( 2009 ) pointed out that in order to accomplish the mission of an endeavor, some necessities are needed, for case, endeavor should hold a clear understanding of it construction, commercials, processs, engineering, and a better relationship with other endeavors. The above necessities which should be taken into consideration are the internal factors for an endeavor. On the other manus, Marc et Al. pointed out that some external factors are besides critical for endeavor, for case, clients, providers, concerted spouse, regulations and ordinances. These external and internal necessities are besides of great of import to the hereafter development of an endeavor. Marc et Al. besides noted that when an endeavor is spread outing its graduated table, endeavor architecture which organise these necessities is a good method. Enterprise architecture provides an lineation which can back up and inform concern scheme in order to accomplish the mission for an endeavor.
Enterprise architecture supports concern scheme. Enterprise architecture is helpful for doing a program which consists of several schemes. ( Paker and Benson, 1989 cited in Marc et Al. 2009 ) More significantly, a strategic alliance theoretical account was introduced to explicate the relationship among concern scheme, organizational substructure, Information Technology ( IT ) scheme and IT substructure. ( Figure ) ( Henderson and Venkatraman, 1993 cited in Marc et Al. 2009 ) The alliance among these four facets can non last without enterprise architecture. Marc et Al. ( 2009 ) noted that endeavor architecture plays an of import function in these four facets. For illustration, based on concern scheme, endeavor can obtain IT substructure construction through IT scheme or administration substructure, on the other side, based on IT scheme, endeavor are able to hold entree to organizational scheme by concern scheme or IT substructure.