The There is a long list of

The number of molecules in nature can be
considered virtually unlimited, thanks to the various possible combinations of
the arrangement and rearrangement of the atoms. Since the year 1800 thru the
first half of 2015, over 101 million organic and inorganic molecules had been
revealed and assembled globally, numerous of which produced by natural,
synthetic and biosynthetic mechanisms of chemical engineering (1). This number,
however, seems to be only a fraction of the molecular universe, yet unexplored,
of our planet. Throughout the ages mankind has benefited from natural medicines
to treat or prevent a broad spectrum of diseases. Indeed, secondary metabolites
from plants, microorganisms and marine products have been long considered as
valuable sources of novel molecules with potential for drug development in
numerous biomedical areas (2). To date, a very high number of conditions
affecting the oral health can be prevented, ameliorated and/or treated with the
use of natural product (NP)-based drugs or formulations. There is a long list
of NP-derived and NP-inspired drugs (3), mouthwashes, and toothpastes etc. that
have been available over the counter or under prescription. Longer yet is the
list of reasons why the search for novel treatment modalities should not cease.
Microbial resistance, short- and long-term toxicity, adverse and side effects,
high costs for the end user, compromised sustainability of industrial
large-scale production, among many others.

Natural sources derived
products of nutritional, medicinal and cosmetic products is of on constant
demand in consumers. Therefore, natural products industry has sequentially been
mounting year by year 8, 9. Primarily, we saw 9-10% annual growth in
natural cosmetic products across the globe in 2013. 10, 11. Natural sources
and its derivatives had shown biological activity which allows the de novo
formulations of bio actives to underwrite in health care, beauty and wellness
of human with supplementary worth adding to the market 12–14.

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According to the European
Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation, anything which can perform the followings for exterior
parts of the human body, teeth and mucous membranes of the oral cavity in order
to washing them, imbuing them, altering their look and/or modifying body odors
and/or shielding them or keeping them in blameless state can be classified as
cosmetic products 15. Contrasting to the European legislation, Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) echoes that sunbath products, moisturizers and makeup advertised
with sun-protection privileges, skin-whitening merchandises, anti-wrinkle merchandises,
antidandruff shampoos, toothpastes that contain fluoride, deodorants that are
also antiperspirants, and cosmetic textiles are drugs, since these products include
one or more compounds with biological activity and/or affect the body’s edifice
or roles 16, 17.

Cosmetics can be congregated
in 7 categories: skin care and maintenance; cleansing; odor improvement; hair
removal; hair care and maintenance; care and maintenance of mucous membranes;
and decorative cosmetics 18. Yet not consensual, textile cosmetics can be a
skin care cosmetic 19, 20. The cosmetic possessions of aromatic plants,
especially as fragrance, are accredited to essential oils (EOs) and extracts. Henceforth,
EOs are normally a constituent existing in all groups of cosmetic merchandises

Over the
centuries herbs had been used as medicines and cosmetics. Their prospective to cure
diverse skin ailments, to embellish and increase the skin look is greatly
documented. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be a reason behind sunburns,
wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer. There
is a stable requirement for defense mechanism against UV radiation and
deterrence from its side effects. Natural herbs and their herbal preparations can
have a high potential due to their inherited antioxidant activity. Antioxidants
such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), tannin, flavonoids, and phenolic acids
play the key role in fighting against free radical species that are the core
source of many negative skin variations. Though sequestered plant compounds
have a high probable in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts had shown
better potential due to their multifaceted alignment. Earlier studies had shown
that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adversative to the skin
reactions for UV exposure. The gel from aloe-vera is believed to stimulate skin
and assist in new cell growth. Review covers all essential aspects of potential
of herbs as radio protective agents and its future prospects 7. Secondary plant metabolites, phenolic compounds are
formed in response to different stresses. It reacts to give the following
responses like anti-inflammation, inhibit tumor growth, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic
actions, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiaging properties, modulate the
immune system, increase capillary resistance, protect the cardiovascular and
neurological systems, limit weight gain, promote wound healing  etc. Polyphenolics are recycled
in numerous sectors of the food and cosmetic industry as natural
additives 24. Polyphenols currently contributes on their bioavailability, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic
properties. Polyphenols protective role can be seen against reactive oxygen and
nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators. Prophylaxis
and even cure for some kind of human cancer can be achievable by polyphenolic
treatment. With low biological availability and fast metabolism it had shown
signs of problems while it could also show very low toxicity and high
specificity across the spectrum of polyphenols. A very common process of
solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic
effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multi
targeted action. A combinatorial therapy of current drugs with polyphenols had
also shown significantly low toxicity with promising output 25.

Largely aromatic plants and
living organism’s biosynthesizes these EO’s which are nothing else a complex concoction
of diverse volatile lipophilic aromatic components. 29. They are secondary
metabolites formed in cytoplasm and plastids of plant cells 22 and deposited
in secretory cells, cavities, canals, epidemic cells or glandular trichomes
27. EOs are usually extracted by processes of steam distillation, solid phase
extraction, cold pressing, solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction,
hydro distillation 13, 23, 27, or simultaneous distillation-extraction
28, 30. Essential oils are been used mainly in cosmetics and some time in
beautification of human being 23. At the year 2009, cosmetic products like skin
care products clocked 23% value share globally 34. By the use of
microencapsulation we can overcome the hurdles like short shelf life and
volatility of it. 26. Along with this pros microencapsulation worked for
sustained release of the reactive essential oil to the environment 35.