The origins and methods of LEAN Essay

What is Thin?

The beginning of thin roots from Toyota Production System. Taiichi Ohno in his book ‘Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production ‘ , described the most of import aim of Toyota System as “ increase production efficiency by systematically and exhaustively extinguishing waste ” . The revolution and development of this system is now referred to as thin production.

Dave Stockton and Riham Khalil in Lean Business Environment talk note De Montfort University, has defined thin as “ the procedure or activities to better a processing system, doing the procedure efficient and improving in quality, cost and on-time bringing ” . Besides John Bicheno in Cause and Effect Lean described “ thin thought as a doctrine and non a system or technique ” .

Hence, thin by and large encompasses the attitude/culture to better on procedures utilizing appropriate tools and technique to stipulate value, place betterment possibilities, implement them and continuously seek flawlessness through uninterrupted betterment.

The thin idea/thinking demands the bar and riddance of wastes and accomplishment of high efficiency. ‘Muda ‘ , a Nipponese word which refers to blow includes procedures, activities and resources which do non lend value to the client ‘s demands both in fabrication and in service. These wastes are:

Overproduction: This refers to the production of extra merchandises. Production should take at merely bring forthing the exact measure and quality merely at the clip needed.

Over processing: This is the usage of inappropriate processing method – machine or agenda. For case, the extra programming of procedures that do non add value to merchandise in the production line.

Waiting: This can come in signifier of non-utilization such as barricading, waiting, arrests ( interrupt down or care ) , and alteration over C/O.

Transportation system: This refers to motion of stuffs from one topographic point to the other. It can be internal within the store floor ( long distances within layout ) or external from provider ( Local or international ) .

Unnecessary Gesture: This refers to human gesture every bit good as machines. For case, bending, stretching, motion of the custodies ( dual handling ) , walking and about.

Inventory: This can be in form Work in Progress ( WIP ) , extra stuffs from the providers non in usage, lying on the shop. This affects hard currency flow, and consumes infinite every bit good. Just in Time ( JIT ) fabrication reduces stock list

Defects: This refers to the merchandises non run intoing the standardized quality set for the production. They can be reworked or scrap. It affects cost.

1.0 UNCOORDINATED SCHEDULE

1.1 Introduction:

Scheduling refers to a stage of phase in undertaking direction that involves splitting of the undertaking into assorted undertakings, sketching them with estimated clip and resources required in other complete the undertaking. Uncoordinated agenda can probably present waste ‘Muda ‘ in the fabrication procedure which can come in signifier of underutilization of work force and unneeded addition in project lead clip.

1.2 CASE STUDY PROBLEM:

William J. Stevenson “ Production Operations Management ” ; – Sixth Edition ; pp. 801.

“ Chris received new word processing package for her birthday. She besides received a cheque, with which she intends to buy a new computing machine. Chris ‘s college teacher has assigned a paper due following hebdomad. Chris has decided that she will fix the paper on the new computing machine. She has made a list of the activities she will necessitate to make and their estimated times ”

1.3 Thin Thinking:

Peoples Involved:

– Chris

1.3.2 Using Flow chart:

As the agenda of the activities in the above instance survey is uncoordinated, Flow chart – which is on the seven quality tools, can be implemented in thin thought. This tool has been chosen in other to map out and understand the procedure flow of the activities as Chris will desire to use them in other to accomplish quality consequence in the readying of the paper and besides at when due – on clip bringing. The chart is shown in Fig

Thin thought and the usage of the quality tool – flow chart has enabld the coordiantion of the activies in a logical sequence.

1.4 IMPLEMENTING Tilt:

As mentioned antecedently, thin is all about uninterrupted betterment and flow. The above flow chart can be rearranged implementing thin to demo a more logcial sequence that has a better flow or the activities in a regular signifier.

As a uninterrupted betterment, a flow has been achieved for continuity from taking a subject ( Ch ) until the paper is submitted ( Sub ) .

The entire clip of the undertaking in hours = Time for ( G + H + A + D + I + B + F + E + C )

= 2.0 + 1.0 + 0.8 + 0.6 + 2.0 + 0.4 + 3.0 + 0.5 + 0.2

= 10.5 Hourss

Furthermore on betterment, the value added activities can be identified and differentiated from the non-value added activities.

Having identified the non-value added activities, the clip for these activities can be reduced in other to cut down the entire lead clip of the undertaking.

If activity E is reduced from 2.0 hours to 1.6 hours and the activity G reduced from 0.5 hours to 0.3 hours, so the entire lead clip of the undertaking becomes 9.9 hours.

Hence % decrease in entire clip = 10.5 – 9.9 x 100 = 5.7 %

10.5

1.4.1 Network Diagram:

Network diagram can be used to stand for the agenda sequence, doing activity ‘A ‘ to run in parallel with activity ‘D ‘ . From Critical way analysis, the entire lead clip is farther reduced.

: . Since G – H – D – I – B – F – Tocopherol – C has the longer entire clip of completion, it is the critical way, and hence the entire lead clip is dependent on the critical way. Hence the entire lead clip has been reduced to 9.1 hours from 9.9 hours.

% age decrease from the old clip = 9.9 – 9.1 x 100 = 8.08 %

9.9

1.5 Decision:

Implementing sustained thin with uninterrupted betterment utilizing appropriate procedure flow sequence, decrease of clip spent on non-value added activities and proper activity scheduling with web diagram has reduced the entire clip by 10.5 % . This will ease on clip bringing which is a public presentation step of successful thin execution.

2.0 Large BATH SIZES

2.1 Introduction

Batch size refers to the figure of parts of a merchandise processed in a processing work station at a peculiar rhythm clip of the station. Processing of a peculiar batch size is normally completed before consumption of another batch. The batch size of a work station relates straight to the rhythm clip of the station hence has an influence on the lead clip of production coming to completion.

2.2 CASE STUDY PROBLEM:

Velarde, G. J. , Saloni, D. E. , new wave Dyk, H. , and Giunta, M. ( 2009 ) . Process flow betterment proposal utilizing thin fabrication doctrine and simulation technique on a modular place maker. Thin Construction Journal pp 82 – 83

“ The fabrication procedures of every faculty Begin with the production of the base ( foundation ) , the walls, and the tops at the same time. By making this the company assures that the walls and tops will be ready to piece when the procedure needs to take topographic point. The plumbing operations starts with the faculty base and after the walls and the tops are assembled ; portion of the plumbing is finished. The electrical portion of the procedure begins after the walls are in topographic point and terminals after the top assembly is finished. After all the plumbing and the electrical operations are finished, the exterior work Begins. The interior wallboard operations so take topographic point including all the waiting times due to several stairss in drying and sanding. Final quality control is performed at the very terminal of the concluding coating measure.

A complete clip survey was done with follow up of different faculties throughout the full installation. Besides extra system public presentation information was obtained from historical production information from the company informations ”

Figure: Current State Value Stream Map of the fabricating installation of the Modular places

2.3 Thin Thinking:

2.3.1 Evaluation of the Current Value watercourse Map ( VSM ) :

The bing fabrication procedure work Stationss are nine in figure.

The current value added clip is calculated therefore: summing up of all the rhythm clip ( C/T ) of the single procedure work station:

90 + 90 + 45 + 60 + 120 + 205 + 240 + 320 + 300 = 1470 mins

The queuing clip is calculated in hours and the C/T is calculated in mins.

The current entire lead clip of undertaking calculated therefore: summing up of all the C/T of the procedures and the queuing clip of the WIP stock list:

90 + 60 + 90 + 60 + 45 + 60 + 60 + 120 + 205 + 240 + 320 + 60 + 300 = 1710 mins

The takt clip of the fabrication = Real production line = 1470

Customer Demand 4.5

= 326.7 mins

Observation of WIP stock list queuing.

Very big batch sizes at the stoping line of the production.

2.3.2 Peoples involved:

– Production Management, – Production, – Suppliers, – Customer, – Team caputs of the procedures, – The procedure Operators.

2.3.4 Thin Proposal for the Future State VSM:

The major observation from the current province VSM reveals big batch size down the line of production at the Drywall and Final coating Stationss. This has led to long lead clip for the production.

Hence, the undermentioned betterments have been proposed implementing thin thought to accomplish a better Future province VSM.

Decrease of the batch size in the undermentioned procedure Stationss: Electric, Exterior, Drywall and Final coating. The batch sizes were reduced to nine ( 9 ) each and this besides accordingly reduced the production lead clip.

Introduction of Kanban for the providers. The providers can be done daily ; this will heighten the information flow and coordination between the administration and the provider. The Kanban will besides originate necessary form of agenda and bringing for the production supervisor ‘s control.

The decrease and riddance of the WIP stock list line uping along the procedure flow and debut of supermarket Kanban for the station so that there will cut down unneeded day-to-day gesture to the production supervisor.

A pull system FIFO is besides introduced to heighten a uninterrupted flow stuff through the work station.

Introduction of Kanban between the production supervisor and the dispatch in other to maintain accurate record of the completed productions in other to hold on-time bringing.

After the Implementation of thin with uninterrupted betterment of the Current VSM, the betterment of the Future VSM can be seen in the tabular array and graph below:

Table: Improvement on the Current VSM demoing the Future VSM of the Manufacturing installation of Modular places.

Chart: Improvement on Process lead clip of the Current VSM demoing the Future VSM of the Manufacturing installation of Modular places.

Table: Overall Percentage betterment step Current Vs Future VSM of the Manufacturing installation of the modular places

2.4 Decision

Implementing thin with uninterrupted betterment utilizing VSM tool has achieved betterment in the fabrication. Introduction of the pull system and riddance of the WIP stock list will ease proper uninterrupted flow of stuffs. The C/T decrease from the reduced batch sizes has besides reduced the entire lead clip of production.

Another accomplishment of the big batch size decrease is the speedy observation of defect during the review. So the rework degree and bit measure is reduced. The thin waste of defects is eliminated.

3.0 MULTIPLE Handling

3.1 Introduction:

Multiple handling can be defined as a system in a fabrication where there are more than one products/parts to bring forth or there are more than one stuff resource handled during the fabrication procedure. Having a thin thought, wastes such as defects, unneeded gesture and stock list possibly associated with fabrication with multiple handling. Implementing sustained thin thought will convey solution.

3.2 CASE STUDY

Terry Hill, “ Manufacturing Strategy – Text and Cases ” Second edition ISBN 0-333-76222-3 pp 470

Outline of Manufacturing Process in SANTAL ( SA )

“ Santal ( SA ) is a subordinate of the Albi Group, a French-based pudding stone with fabrication workss throughout Europe and North America affecting aerospace parts and automotive parts production.

Santal has three major modeling procedures for the fabrication of the machine parts for both aerospace and automotive. These moulding procedures are compaction, injection, and reassign molding. Represented below is the fabricating informations on the sample of aerospace parts and automotive merchandises.

3.3 Thin Thinking:

3.3.1 Histogram:

The job reported in this instance is that of multiple handling of different parts of merchandises utilizing different fabrication procedures. Hence being thin thought, the big informations sets has been summarised in a graphical signifier utilizing the histogram. Comparison is besides made as respects type of procedure used and the measure of merchandise.

From the histogram, all aerospace merchandises are manufactured by

compaction modeling with a sum of = 1500 metric tons.

The entire end product of merchandises from automotive merchandises peers 3535 metric tons accounting ;

compaction modeling = 1635 metric tons

Transportation modeling = 1190 metric tons

Injection modeling = 710 metric tons

3.4 Thin IMPLEMANTATION/SOLUTION:

The differences in volumes of fabrication end products have been shown aerospace and automotive parts every bit good as the molding processes within the automotive merchandises. Lean is implemented here by dividing the works layout into two holding otherwise, the automotive subdivision and the aerospace subdivision.

3.4.1 Facility Layout:

Aerospace Section:

There is a individual compaction modeling processing in this subdivision. Hence a Process-oriented Layout is implemented.

This reduces the internal transit within the sector as procedures have close propinquity

There is a better use of the machines.

This will ease flexibleness which is traveling people where and when there are needed.

There will besides be equipment flexibleness in allotment of undertakings.

Automotive Section:

There are different molding procedures here and this subdivision has comparative low-volume and high-volume terminal. Hence a Group Technology/Cellular Layout is implemented. This will consist the thre modeling procedure and therefore the followers are achieve:

Team attitude which is involvement and committedness to work.

Addition in flexibleness as everyone in the squad is involved and accomplishments can be moved from one topographic point to another.

Visibility in the layout will be established such that one can see what is go oning and assist out in instance of job anyplace.

3.5 Decision:

The ‘Muda ‘ in the signifier of underutilisation will be reduced. After implementing thin, there will besides be good use of infinite and internal transit reduced while the tilt is continuously sustained.

4.0 FREQUENT MACHINE BREAKDOWNS

4.1 Introduction:

In thin fabrication, a frequent machine dislocation constitutes waste of lead clip in the production, big sum of rework and sometimes the increased cost of production.

Don Tapping et Al in ‘Value Stream Management, pp 40 ‘ has illustrated ‘Cost plus versus monetary value subtraction ‘ in the cost decrease rule as being more efficient in thin thought to maximize net income in footings of cost.

Elimination of waste associated with frequent machine dislocations utilizing thin is illustrated in the instance survey below.

4.2 CASE STUDY/PROBLEM:

“ Personal experience at Mek-Mak Printing Press Umuahia Nigeria. The company ‘s concern is full imperativeness printing. The procedure flow starts from design graphics, through color separation, Lithography, feeling and packaging. The feeling machine interruptions down often and there are big paper destroyed during each dislocation in the procedure ”

4.3 Thin Thinking:

4.3.1 Peoples Involved:

In originative job work outing betterment procedure, the job needs a strategic determination degree attack and being an involvement thing, it has to be a squad brainstorming exercising which includes:

– Production directors, – Production supervisors, – Operators, and – Suppliers.

First, the five ‘w ‘ in thin job resolution is applied,

What is the Problem? – There is frequent machine dislocation in the feeling work station

When does it go on? – It occurs during forenoon displacements

Who is responsible? – The feeling printing operator.

Where does it go on? – At the feeling phase of the printing.

Why?

4.3.2 Cause and Effect Diagram ( Ishikawa Diagram ) :

This is a procedure betterment tool which has been used to foreground where the job is, discover and make a list of possible causes of the job.

After the encephalon storming, it has been discovered that the chief causes of the job relates to:

The shift of displacement from dark to forenoon and

Type of thickness of stuff used in the forenoon displacement.

4.3.3 The 5 Why ‘s?

Furthermore the 5 Why ‘s are used to find the root cause of the job.

The chief cause is the Shifts switch from Night to Morning

Why?

Because the operator in the forenoon displacement used paper.

Why?

Because it is the stuff he saw on store floor

Why?

Because he assumed the paper on store floor is required to go on the occupation.

Why?

He is non cognizant card was used on machine at the last dark ‘s displacement and he did non set the machine scene.

Why?

He did non see any record of old dark ‘s occupation on machine.

The root cause has been identified as the deficiency of ocular direction in the company and besides at the work Stationss.

4.4 IMPLEMENTING LEAN, VISUAL CONTROL SYSTEM ( VCS ) AND THE 5 ‘S

The undermentioned VCS are implemented and visualised decently for everybody to see clearly:

Procedure Control: This is the overall processing from client at order and back to client at bringing.

Work Control: This is scheduling and flow of material visualized in other to maintain the operators informed.

Equipment, Fixture and Tool Control: This informs the operators what equipment is needed.

5 ‘S is implemented to screen out stuffs non needed on store floor, arrange, clean and brush the workstation. It is continuously sustained in the procedure.

4.5 Decision:

Untidy workstation can represent distractions in the workstation. But the usage of the VCS which is a powerful thin tool and 5 ‘S created a uninterrupted improved ocular direction, hence errors of non adjust machine which leads to patronize dislocation is prevented.