In the broadening of business described here, what shifts in manufacturing took place and what business innovations occurred, and what effect did this have on the general distribution of goods in America? To the nineteenth century innovations of interchangeable parts and breaking down complex operations into simple steps, the twentieth century added standardization and the time-and-motion analyses pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor to make the assembly line highly efficient. Union officials were alarmed that workers were becoming nothing but adjuncts to the machines, but increased production was its own justification for the science of factory management.Industrialists & employers wanted cheap labor, land speculators and politicians hoped would populate west + increase demand for goods, increase influence. Industrialization aided by new energy sources: coal replacing wood + water in factories. Allowed mills to be located away from streams, easier expansion. Technological advances due to American inventors, increasing number of patents. Included Howe-Singer sewing machine, Goodyear vulcanized rubber
What changes contributed to the rise of the factory? Why was this “the most profound economic development in mid-nineteenth century America”? 1820s factory system in shoe industry, by 1830s spread throughout Northeast. By 1860 value of manufactured goods roughly equal to agricultural goods. Largest manufacturers located in the Northeast, large amount of people employed
15 How did technology and industrial ingenuity prepare the way for the expansion of industry and the growth of the American economy? Developed industries relatively immature, fine items came from England. But by 1840s rapid machine technology advances, sophisticated textile industry. Technology and demand led to factories- began in New England textile industry, large water-driven machines increased production
Who were the “merchant capitalists” and what was the significance of their transformation into “industrial capitalists”? Individual + small merchant capitalist companies dominated, but some larger businesses gave way to corporations- combined resources of large number of shareholders. Grew 1830s b/c states passed easy incorporation laws. Limited liability meant stockholder risked only value of investment if corporation failed
How did the textile mills recruit and use labor? What was the general response of workers to the Lowell method? Of observers? What caused the breakdown of this system? Increasing supply of immigrant workers after 1840 boom for manufacturers- large and inexpensive labor source. Little leverage with employers, lack of skills and native prejudice led to low, intermittent wages—great poverty. Irish workers predominated 1840s textile industry, arrival led to deteriorating working conditions. Less social pressure on owners to maintain decent environment, piece rates instead of daily wages to speed production. Supreme Court ruled in Commonwealth v Hunt that unions were legal and strikes lawful, other states gradually agreed.
18 What was the lot of workingwomen in Lowell and other factory towns? How did this differ from conditions in Europe? What problems did these women have in adjusting to factory and factory-town life? One recruitment brought whole families form farm to the mill with parents and children, but Lowell/Waltham system enlisted young women. Labor conditions relatively good in early years of system, better than Europe Lowell system used young, unmarried women but had good housing + food
19 How did the circumstances of immigrant workers differ from those of native laborers? Competitive textile market of 1830s/40s manufactures had difficulty maintaining high standards + conditions, wages fell. Union of Factory Girls Association struck twice, but both failed. Eventually immigrants filled jobs. Increasing supply of immigrant workers after 1840 boom for manufacturers- large and inexpensive labor source. Little leverage with employers, lack of skills and native prejudice led to low, intermittent wages—great poverty