The some becoming shorter. A woman is

The menopause is an
event that occurs in the life of every occurs in the midlife of women,
due to deficiency of estrogen hormone or progesterone. it is the cease or end
of menstruation and fertility. It is a change women experience after the end of
menstruation. The change occurs when the women reaches at the age of 40 or 50
and has not menstruated for twelve months. The periods can become unbalanced,
some becoming longer and some becoming shorter. A
woman is in perimenopause until she has not menstruated for 12 months. There
are two types of menopause;


            It is a phase nearby menopause.  Peri-menopause means “around the menopause” It
include 12 months to pass before we can say that menopause has occur.It also
includes the time period when the symptoms of menopause start to appear. During
perimenopause a women may start experiencing symptoms like hot flushes, change
in mood and sleep, or other symptoms for a year before her periods start to
change. Hormone fluctuations can become more obvious during peri-menopause. Its
onset is 40-50.


            Post-menopause is a state when a
women have not experience menstruation for a year. It is phase when periods
totally ends. Its onset is 40s and late 60s.

studies conducted on menopause describe Most of the women face
psychological distress and changes because of the menopause. The basic purpose
of this study is to investigate the association between psychological
conflicts,low level of self-respect, oxidative stress ,anxiety ,depression and
life quality of women with post-menopause. This study used cross-sectional
method. 101 women with premenopause and 101 women with post menopause using
scales of zung self-rating depression and anxiety and coppersmith self-esteem
inventory and World Health Association Quality of life brief.

After applying
the scales results have been shown that life quality of post-menopausal women
is lower than premenopausal women and psychological conflicts, oxidative stress,
depression and anxiety is higher in women with post menopause.

The other study states
menopausal are a natural
period of physiological adaptation. This result as a decreasement in
reproduction  ofhormones and could be
mild.some women may face many psychological problems but some may not.The basic
aim of this study is to assess health challenges and psychological effects in a
rural area of Nigeria of middle aged women. The total sample is 120 women age
40 to 55 years.The descriptive surveywas used as semi structured questionnaire.
The results have been shown that most of the women with menopause experiences
psychological distress and challenges. They also face night sweats, low libido,
weightgain, dizziness and many heart problems.Women should be enough educated
prior to this period.

The menopausal stage is very important in women
because it is a psychological variation that effect their social, psychological
and emotional phases. As a result sleep problems, chronic fatigue, sadness
feelings, hopelessness, emptiness, irritability, withdrawal with society,  dysphoria and changes in appetite could be
occurred. It can affect the thinking way, concentration and judgmental
abilities. It is a major transitional point of reproduction as eggs could not
be produced in ovaries and naturally a woman is not capable to get pregnant.
Women use problem focused, appraisal focused and emotion focused strategies
during menopausal period to cope with stress. 100 women were selected as a sample.
Results have been shown that 55% women face mild problems and 78% women adapted
the strategies to overcome the stress and post-menopausal women face more psychological

This study is
conducted in srilanka.  In this study
investigate about the reason of menopause and effect on women of srilanka. Menopause
is a step of a woman’s life when hormonal changes cause menstruation to stop
permanently. Totally, women face 34 different symptoms of menopause. Menopausal
symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various
socio-demographic factors. The objective of this study is to undergo a survey
of the symptoms and awareness associated with menopause among Sri Lankan
academic women from the age 25 to 60. By using modified MRS (Menopause Rating
Scale) questionnaire, 50 Sri Lankan women aged 25-60 years were interviewed to
document of 10 symptoms divided into somatic, psychological and physiological
symptoms which are commonly associated with menopause. The mean age of
menopause was 52 years (range 47 – 56 years). The most extensive symptoms
reported were joint and muscular pains (76%); physical and mental exhaustion
(58%); and concentration and sleeping problems (60%) followed by symptoms of
hot flushes and night sweating (66%); irritability (64%); itching in private
parts (68%); anxiety (92%); depressive mood (80%). Correspond to other studies
on Indian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of
sleeping problems physical and mental exhaustion was lower compared to studies
on Sri Lankan women. The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was measured using
modified MRS in this study. Very few studies have been undertaken regarding the
importance of women’s awareness level about the menopause phenomenon in their
mental, psychological, and physical health, therefore this research finding
will contribute to the available body of knowledge in this area.

This study was to
identify correlations of the knowledge, attitude, symptoms and management
toward menopause in middle-aged women. Midlife women’s knowledge, positive
attitudes and management toward menopause may improve the quality of peri and
post-menopause life Growth of the population of women, which was relatively
faster than that of men population. Peri- and post-menopause women experience a
wide range of menopause symptoms, and their lifestyle patterns and physical,
psychological, social and spiritual adaptation directly affecting elderly
health improvement are considerably crucial. Many middle-aged women worry about
losing their womanhood and attractiveness after menopause, and may suffer from
the physical symptoms of menopause. While, peri-menopausal
women may experience a sense of loss and worthlessness after they stop
giving values to maternal roles as their children grow and become independent.
Women facing postmenopausal changes can lead a richer life by looking at life
in a positive perspective as an opportunity for inner maturity. And postmenopausal women at midlife
experience various problems and difficulty in adapting to climacteric changes
has a direct effect on elderly women’s health, health-promoting lifestyle
patterns and psychological adaptation have been considered as important issues.
Middle-aged women with more knowledge of menopause were more likely to manage
menopause better, and those having more negative attitudes toward menopause
were found to experience negative menopause symptoms Midlife women with severe
menopause symptoms were more likely to have a lower quality of life

Menopause age is
constant; an increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase of the
menopause period in women.  This study
was done to assess women’s awareness level about symptoms and complications of
menopause and methods of their prevention. This cross-health care centers. The
research was conducted using a questionnaire with regular random sampling
method. The analysis of obtained findings was done by SPSS statistical software
and statistical tests. Results: Based on their total score, 48.6% of women had
good awareness, 24.1% of them had average awareness, and 27.3% of them had low
awareness. Eighty-five percent of the participants had read or heard some
topics about menopause from their relatives (26.8%), friends (25.5%), health
care staffs (20%), books and journals (10.5%), and television or radio (8.6%).
Women’s awareness level had significant correlation with child number, job,
education, income, hearing or reading text about menopause and their
informational source, but awareness did not have significant correlation with
age and being menopausal. The findings of this study, the rate of participants’

One billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience
of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural
setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach
changes in this phase of life. Although it is essential to provide
appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have
so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide.
Hot flushes and night sweats are the strongest symptoms of those reported by
women affected by the changes experienced during menopause. Positive `or
negative ways in which each woman approaches the changes during menopause are
influenced by their personal, family and sociocultural background.
Menopause is an important life event
that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept
widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and
duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact
of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

Cognitive changes and mood instability are frequent symptoms reported by
menopausal women, the degree to which the decline in estrogen production is
responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogen
may produce its effects on cognition and mood through modulation of
serotonergic function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan
depletion (TD) paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically
manipulated estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the
individual and combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory,
emotion processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy
predominantly early postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion
followed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after
short-term transdermal estradiol 75-150 ug/d administration. There was an
estradiol treatment by TD interaction for brain activation during performance
on both the N-back Task (working memory) and Emotion Identification Task
(affective processing). During the 2-back condition, TD attenuated activation
prior to, but not after, estradiol treatment in the right and left dorsal
lateral prefrontal and middle frontal/cingulate gyrus. During emotion
identification, TD heightened activation in the orbital frontal cortex and
bilateral amygdala, and this effect was attenuated by estradiol treatment.
These results provide preliminary evidence that serotonergic effects directly
mediate the impact of estrogen on brain activation during working memory and
affective processing.

Preclinical studies suggest that estrogen affects neural structure and
function in mature animals; clinical studies are less conclusive with many, but
not all, studies showing a positive influence of estrogen on verbal memory in
postmenopausal women.

 A research project entitled Women, Work and
the Menopause: Releasing the Potential of Older Professional Women. Menopause
is a ‘silent issue’ for most organisations, and older women represent a group
whose working lives, experiences and aspirations are poorly understood by
employers, national governments and academic researchers alike. This is highly
unfortunate given that women aged 45 years and over comprise 17% of the ageing
Australian workforce (Tilly et al., 2013), meaning that over one million
working women are currently going through, or have already gone through, the
menopause. The broad aim of this project was therefore to examine the
occupational health and well-being of older women, with a particular emphasis
on understanding women’s experiences of menopause at work. More specifically,
the project set out to generate insights on five key areas: 1. Older women’s
health and well-being; 2. The relationship between menopause-related symptoms
and four specific work outcomes (work engagement, job satisfaction,
organisational commitment, intention to quit); 3. Actual and desired levels of
organisational support for women experiencing menopause; 4. Work-related and
organisational factors that exacerbate or ameliorate women’s experiences of
menopause in the workplace; and 5. Women’s first-hand experiences, beliefs and
attitudes towards menopause at work. More than 80% of women
face psychological and physical problems because of menopause.  The basic aim of this study is to investigate
effects of menopause on women health. This study used the question that ” are
the symptoms of menopause effect women’s health?”

Descriptive design was used in this
study as a method. 90 women were took from department of gynecology and their
age range was between the 40 to 60 years.

Results showed that hot flushes,
dissatisfied personal life, poor memory, change in desires of sex and low
backache were the most major and sever symptoms of physical, psychosocial and
vasomotor domains. There are many diseases that directly attack on women’ s
heath. Menopause is the main major factor of diseases. Most of the women ignore
their health related issue. Key and major aspect is to make preventions of such

The basic aim of this study was to
investigate the 11 major diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes
mellitus, vasomotor symptoms, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, cancer, depression and
sleep disturbances. This study is a prospective study and was conducted in
department of OBGYN in Nepal. This study has 3 main objectives, to see the
menopausal age, middle life health issues of females and to measure the
prevalence rate of women with menopausal issues.

500 women were conduct in this study and
they all were interviewed in 10 months and their age range was 45 to 60 years
old. In this study, slandered questionnaire was administered to women after
conducted their clinical examination and history and MRS (rating scale of
menopause) used to measure the menopausal scores. Mean of the menopause was
49.9%. After the results, the symptoms of physical menopause were the most
common in women and the MRS score was 16.

Our study is aimed to
examine the impact of menopause on women work ability and their leve of anxiety.
Menopause has many physical and psychological effects. It is a state of
hormonal fluctuations. Hormonal changes have great impact on physical and
mental health.

This study dive the overview of major
health related issues of women with peri and post menopause. This study precise
the risk factor and make interventions for improvement of menopausal health.