The terms of reference of this study is to research management styles and assess how the management styles used impact how they affect employees in the Hayward kitchen carrying out their work. It will explore the types of management theories applied to the Camp Hayward kitchen. It will also evaluate how effective they are in practice. This report will also aim to discover what management styles are used with the Camp Hayward kitchen environment
1. Executive summary
Individuals that hold a management role, should strive to be the best manager possible and aim to get the most out of their team. Each manager has their own “breaking in period” in a manner of speaking, this will perhaps help them hone their management skills. Each team is comprised of individual roles, with the members of the team having different preferences and personalities. This indicates that an adaptable manager is required. The business dictionary defines a team as “A group of people with a full set of complementary skills required to complete a task, job or project. (Businessdictionary.com)
In order for teams to reach their full potential they must be open to both positive and negative feedback, for example being able to accept and give back constructive criticism, as well as positive encouragement, ensuring open lines of communication between management and staff. After all teams work together to achieve the same common goal. This is a positive culture present within the Hayward kitchen as team members both past and present have developed long lasting friendships, frequently visiting each other in their respective home countries.
Table of Contents
1. Terms of Reference.. 1
2. Executive summary.. 1
3. methodology.. 3
4. Introduction.. 3
5. Findings. 4
5.1. Management theories. 4
5.2. team structure in the Hayward kitchen.. 5
5.3. assessment of the Hayward kitchen.. 5
5.4. Kitchen management at Camp Hayward.. 6
5.5. evaluation of the effectiveness of management. 6
5.6. analysis of the management styles used.. 7
6. conclusion.. 8
7. recommendations. 9
8. Appendicis. 10
9. references. 11
10. bibliography.. 12
In this report both primary and secondary research was carried out. The primary research was obtained in the form of verbal questionnaires and conversations with members of staff from camp Hayward, asking both employee and managers to allow a view from both sides, in order to gain a deeper understanding. A variety of websites, books and management theories were used to gain reliable information for the secondary sources of research.
Caroselli, (2000) states “that anyone can be a manager. Managers should use a varied approach when interacting with staff” pg. 2. It has been proven that companies can benefit from workplace surveys and questionnaires. A survey of General Telephone and electrics (GTE) published in the Harvard Business Review provides an excellent example. Conducted in the mid 1990’s, this survey revealed that the performance of its different billing operations as measured by the accuracy of the bills sent out, was closely linked with the leadership style of the unit managers. The managers that held a high level of control over their units, committed more mistakes that those units with a more independent workforce.
GTE was able to improve overall billing accuracy by 22% through changes in leadership style promoted via training sessions, discussion groups and videos. Billing accuracy also increased the following year to 24% due to the changes implemented within the company. (Harvard Business Review, 2002, pg1)
4.1. Management theories
The Motivation-Hygiene theory was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950’s, analyzing the responses of 200 accountants and engineers. When asked in the survey about their positive and negative feelings regarding their work, Herzberg discovered two factors that influenced employee motivation and satisfaction levels. (contactzilla.com)
1- Motivator theories- These are factors that lead to gratification and motivate employees to work harder. This could be workplace enjoyment, feeling recognized and valued in the work place and moving up within the workplace.
2- Hygiene factors- These are factors which can lead to dissatisfaction within the workplace and a lack of motivation if they are lacking. Examples of these factors could include salary, benefits, incentives and perhaps relationships with managers and other employees.
This theory implies that for the happiest and most productive workforce, you need to work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors.
When applied to the workplace it is recommended in order to motivate employees, let them know they are valuable assets by way of positive feedback, giving information on things like internal job postings to help the employee progress within the company.
To prevent job dissatisfaction, make sure employees feel that they are working in a supportive, safe environment, offering the best work conditions, i.e. paid breaks and time of f. Paying attention to the collective needs of the team will contribute to forming supportive friendships with them.
Team members in the hayward kitchen had the luxury of having more time off than certain other groups of staff on camp. They also had job perks such as permission to use the onsite laundry facilities. Other members of staff had to take their laundry to a launderette on time off. Staff were also given a key to the kitchen and dining hall to use at all times.
4.2. team structure in the Hayward kitchen
As stated by Thompson 2003, p.142 “Despite the simplistic cliché that there is no I in team, the reality is that teams are collections of individuals (I’s) and there will be no real teamwork if individual needs are not met” This is true to the Hayward kitchen setup as each member of the Camp Hayward kitchen team has a specific role to play. The food service director is at the top of the management hierarchy, followed by kitchen manager, senior kitchen assistants and first-time kitchen assistants. Each member brings something unique to the team, although each member has different responsibilities, they are all working towards the same goal. Communication is the key to achieving the goals set out daily.
4.3. assessment of the Hayward kitchen
From the primary research carried out for this report in the form of interview questions, it is clear each member of staff recognized and understood that each manager in the kitchen had a preferred management style. Given the fast-paced environment of the kitchen, this placed a time constraint on being able to carry out the planned interviews, so staff answered the questions put to them verbally, and to the best of their abilities as English was not the native language of three of the five participants surveyed. When asked if they were happy working at Camp Hayward, each of the five participants indicated that all of them were more than happy to be there and expressed this verbally. From the primary research carried out, it was clear that each member of staff understood the value of effective management when applied to the kitchen area. They also recognized that the method of management can affect how they perform at work. They also liked that tasks were divided equally and marked of on the whiteboard in the kitchen, this kept lines of communication open, staff members indicated that this is something they reacted well to.
Staff indicated that the team meetings with all areas of Camp Hayward staff, held every second Saturday made them feel more inclusive and valued. A first-time staff member commented on “the positive culture of looking out for each other at camp, and in particular the wellness workshops that focused on staff mental health and wellbeing”. This is something management agreed was of critical importance and always at the forefront as staff are living away from home, some for the first time, therefore it is important to look after each other.
As primary research was granted in the form of an end of summer evaluation for staff to complete anonymously and return to management, this gave staff a voice and a chance to give feedback they may not have felt comfortable giving previously.
Although there are many advantages of teams, however there can be disadvantages also. Conflict between members of staff, unequal workload, lack of communication and so on.
4.4. Kitchen management at Camp Hayward
As the Camp Hayward kitchen environment was so fast-paced, it may have been difficult for managers to know how their management style can affect how staff members carry out their work. For this reason, one on one conversations and team meetings have been conducted. The consensus among staff was that they felt more valued as a person and as a member of the team if the manager was engaging and showed an interest. Staff also stated that when both managers worked the same shift, with each preferring different management styles, one preferring directive and the other team, that they felt like they often got conflicting instructions, which to them indicated a lack of planning and communication between management. They agreed that while each manager has a preferred management style, it was key that manager’s lead by example and kept lines of communication open at all times.
According to MacLeod (2009) , “Engaging managers are those who; offer clarity, appreciation of employees’ effort and contribution, treat their people as individuals and ensure that work is organized efficiently and effectively so that employees feel they are valued, equipped and supported to do their job.
Effective managers should be approachable at all times, display a high level of professionalism, empathetic, be able to convey expectations to the rest of the team, i.e. weekly goals expected to achieve.
4.5. evaluation of the effectiveness of management
As it is a seasonal job lasting three months each summer, staff are not automatically rehired due to the high volume of applications each year, that being said, returning staff are given the opportunity to apply first and are mostly given preference as they are an invaluable resource. With four of the five staff surveyed being returning staff members, each in their second third, and sixth returning year respectively, indicates that they are happy with the quality of the work life and culture at camp Hayward. This is the first time that Hayward has had so many returners on the same staff in the same area. It is difficult to judge the turnover in such an organization as it is a seasonal temporary position than attracts staff members from all socioeconomic backgrounds. The foodservice director has been in the same position for 19 years, this suggests that camp Hayward provides a high level of job satisfaction, job security and job happiness or in the director’s own words “I’m very lucky to have the best job on earth”
4.6. analysis of the management styles used
The research gathered finds that the management style did contribute to how employees carry out their work. Out of the two managers surveyed, one manager preferred the directive style with the other preferring the team approach. This presented both advantages and disadvantages especially when both managers worked the same shift. Staff said that they felt like they often got conflicting instructions, this indicates a lack of communication between management with each manager having their own agenda and perhaps forgetting that the team comes first and not the individual needs and wants. When asked if they felt they were an adaptable manager, one of the two said they felt they were, this was the first management position for that manager that answered yes when asked if they were adaptable.
The answers gathered from staff interviews indicate that managers themselves must be adaptable in order to effectively lead and manage the team.
To be successful in managing a team, the manager must flexible, willing and open to change. According to Dr. Bywater, a specialist in human behavior and behavioral change recommends that in order to be successful managers must adopt the following approach (Wjmassoc.com, 2012)
· Assess your team- To be able to apply a flexible leadership style as a manager you must first understand how each individual member of the team works best.
· Create a game plan- Think ahead, devise a coaching/mentor strategy. Consider the frequency of team meetings, personal/professional development plans tailored to each member of the team. Develop a feedback system and the frequency of feedback.
· Work your plan. Once you’ve got your plan in place, ensure it is adhered to whilst being mindful as this will require less “hand-holding” and will create a higher level of freedom in the job role.
· Reflect- Allow some time to pass then reassess the team. Look at the impact management is having on each member. For example, check on levels of satisfaction and engagement within the team. Check if this is having an affect on overall performance. All the time being mindful of the management approach used.
Being a great leader demands the right level of flexibility to manage people in accordance with their needs, based upon each individual level of strength, experience, and individual styles. If managed correctly, it could produce a motivated engaged and reflective team. Staff found that morale was increased when managers lead by example, as this motivated staff. Praise for a job well done was positively received as was staff encouragement, especially for first time members of staff, who for example, when trying recipes that are new to them for the first time. Staff felt comfortable communicating with managers face-to-face, knowing that managers would be there for them. However, staff felt whilst regular communication with managers was a good thing, they liked to be independent in their tasks and feel trusted.
This report found that staff prefer managers who are adaptable and lead by example. Staff do not favor a directive management style. They preferred a team approach as this motivated staff and delivered the best results. They also contribute to a positive work environment, making employees feel valued and trusted. This is proven in the Hayward kitchen as over half of the staff are returners, with the food service director being there for a period of 19 years.
A member of senior staff described the kitchen team as a “home away from home family”. Overall, it is very clear to see that most staff members favor the team managerial approach. This allows regular communication with management. Staff also like to be independent and do not like to feel micro managed. This report found that effective management is essential in how staff carry out their work.
100% of those surveyed stated that they found the Camp Hayward a positive environment to work in. this is mirrored in the high level of returning staff. It wasn’t just the motivational practices that kept them coming back, they indicated it was the management, the positivity in the kitchen, the culture of giving credit where credit is due. This created a sense of belonging, and the majority of staff stated that they would return to work at camp Hayward if the chance to apply presented itself and if their personal circumstances would allow them to do so.
The results from the staff interviews and questionnaires, show that staff performance is directly affected by the managerial styles applied. The team style is preferred as staff react to this best and it produces the best productivity results as it gets the best out of staff. Clear lines of communication are a significant managerial success factor which helps motivate staff, sequentially letting them be approachable in the work place.
When interviewed staff were asked for recommendations/suggestions for areas of improvement that would be beneficial to them, it is recommended that
· Kitchen staff are broken down in to smaller teams during the initial training period.
· More in-depth training provided.
· The second kitchen on site, normally used for cooking lessons for campers is utilized better and used as another site to train kitchen staff.
· First time staff members are paired up with a returner to help them get to grips with the job.
· Kitchen staff to be included more in camp activities or have activities scheduled for them outside of work hours.