Introduction Australia has been engaged in many research activities to determine what influences the behaviour of human beings in an attempt of modelling their behaviours. Recently the increased delinquent behaviours emanated by the youth which results to violence and immoral acts has raised the awareness of Australians as they try to study the root cause of this aggressive attitude. The current research that is being conducted is geared towards detecting the impact media causes on children as they grow up. This is because most behaviour that the children stimulate is associated with media activities such as television violence (Berger, 2004, 34).
According to conducted studies actions or decisions made by human beings depends on factors or forces that drives them to engage in a particular behaviour. In most cases these forces helps human beings to achieve stipulated goals and fulfil their ideal nature. These forces manipulate the unconscious (physic) and conscious (Spirit) parts of their psychological nature thus making them to develop self confidence and reassurance. In the event egocentric and super egocentric attitudes engulf their rational thinking and takes toll of their behaviours (Deci & Ryan 2000, 227-269). Therefore, motivational forces are viewed as instincts which are embedded into the biological system of human beings enabling them to survive whereby they care for their race thus preventing extinction and gain an aggressive attitude which helps them to avoid death especially in devastating situations (Pelletier et al. 2002, 279-306).
In reference to the behaviourism of the two men who climbed the 20,813ft Siula Grande in the Peruvian Andes, this report will discuss the major theoretical approaches to personality and individual differences while elaborating their historical and social context. Thus an analysis of the behaviours depicted by the two men will be related to these theoretical approaches.Theoretical approaches to personality and individual indifferences According to Frankl the behaviour of human beings is motivated by the paradoxical intention of their psychology which stipulates the pleasure and fear that individuals emanate before engaging into activities. The fear is as a result of the phobic, compulsive and obsessive neuroses that are developed by the need of human beings to avoid or fight their anxiety.
The paradoxical intention causes human beings to behave in a reversal manner to their feeling thus are able to detach themselves from these neuroses a condition referred to as logo-therapy. This behaviour is stimulated because of their ability to emphasise on their anticipatory anxiety, where their phobic neurosis tries to avoid the situation while their obsessive-compulsive neurosis fights the fear. In the process human beings stop viewing their situations as worrying and perceive them as humorous thus are able to detach themselves from the worrying situation (Corisini & Wedding 2000, 175- 207). Frankl believes that paradoxical intention is triggered by different behavioural patterns emanated by human beings, for instance the wrong passivity which is the anticipation of human beings in expecting a re-occurrence of their neurotic conditions every time they are faced by similar situation.
Another behavioural pattern is when human beings fight against obsessive neurotic conditions in an attempt of reinforcing their occurrence depicting a perspective of emanating a wrong activity. The third type of behavioural patterns is the right passivity where human beings are able to ridicule their anxiety and thus detach themselves from their neurotic conditions. The fourth type is the ability of human beings to emanate their right activity behavioural pattern where they assume their neurotic condition by focusing on their personal potential which helps them to add value to their lives that they had perceived as meaningless (Corisini & Wedding 2000, 215- 253). According to Shah and Gardner (2007), the motivational forces that influence the behaviour of individuals may result from free will or control from uncontrollable and unforeseeable forces like biological and environmental forces among others. Cattell assumes that personality and individual indifference can be attributed to traits possessed by individuals that also act as primary motivational forces. This fact can be attributed to the genetic viewpoint which generally assumes that human beings have different traits that influence their behaviours and are stable for a substantive period of time.
For instance the big five personality theory which classifies the root cause of human beings behaviour into five factors. The theory describes imaginative, curious and risk taker individuals as open people who are ready to learn from a variety of sources. These individuals are ready to face change and perceive challenges as positive dimensions of growth (Reiss 2000, 74). Planned behaviours that control individual’s impulses in a dutiful manner to gain accomplishment are perceived as conscientious traits. These individuals tend to be reliable however they can also be compulsive perfectionists thereby nagging the people they relate with. Individuals that are highly engaged with the external world and are perceived as sociable by the society exhibit extroversion personality traits while those that minimally engage with the external world because they lack exuberance to be sociable are perceived as introverts (Baumeister ; Von 2004, 325).
On the other hand individuals that seem to trust the others and willingly compromise their individual interests on behalf of the others in an attempt of getting along possess agreeable personality traits. However, sometimes they tend to be highly sceptical because their main aim is to get along with the others and thus may fail to take into consideration other people’s welfare. Individuals that exhibit emotional instability because of their bad moods stimulated by their depression and anxiety depict neurotic personality traits (Craver & Scheier 2001, 239-374). Sigmund Freud formulated the topographic personality theory which depicts motivational forces that influence the behaviour of human beings to perform certain activities as an interaction of human being personality which comprises the id, ego and superego. In that the id personality demand gratification and immediate satisfaction of individuals needs, the ego actualizes the demands and needs emanated by id of the individual whereas the superego correlates these realistic principles and concepts with norms that are considered to be morally ethical (Pine 1989, 31-61). In an attempt of further elaborating this theory, Freud formulated the iceberg model of personality to associate human behaviour with motivational forces which result from the topographical and structural approach of human personality. This approach includes the conscious and unconscious psychology of humans and the id, ego and superego human personality respectively.
The self personality theory explains the development of a sense of self from the constant interaction with others which motivates individuals to achieve certain goals and objectives that are possessed or have been accomplished by the others (Horvath 2001, 365-372). Modern psychoanalysis theory modified concepts in the Freud theory to make them applicable to the full spectrum of emotions depicted by human beings (Morris 2007, 10-24). Behaviourist theories describe the interaction of individuals with the environment surrounding them as the motivational factor which influences their behavioural codes whereby, individuals respond to stimulants that depict certain consequences. This explains the increase in emanation of behaviours that results to positive consequences (Cervoneet al. 2006, 333-385). The classical conditioning theory categorizes the stimulant as unconditioned that is biological stimulants, conditioned which include stimulants evoked by another stimulant and neutral which comprises operational stimulants (May & Yalom 2000, 282-288).
The social cognitive theory explains that the behaviour of individuals is adopted from the interaction of humans which results to the imitation of the attitude and behaviour of others in regards to the exhibited consequences of their actions (Reiss 2004, 179-193). Humanistic theories explain that human behaviour is as a result of free will directed by the self actualization of an individual (Frankl 1967, 136-154). Human beings use their potential to engage in activities that they believe are dignified with an aim of accomplishing their goals. The urge of presenting an ideal self determines the behaviour an individual will stimulate. This is because the results obtained fulfil the needs and desires of an individual thereby motivating the person to further present a better person than before (Keith & Asthmus 2001, 149-159). For instance the self determination theory which aims at emanating the positive attributes potential and talents of an individual, a fact that is mainly used by individuals involved in sport activities (Camus 1955, 37). According to Maslow human beings have needs that need to be fulfilled before they achieve their self actualization which motivates their behaviours.
Maslow formulated a hierarchy pyramid that defined human being needs in accordance to their importance from the lowest that is psychological needs to the highest which include self realization needs. Maslow grouped these needs as basic, safety, love and belonging, achievement and self actualization (Katzenbach 2003, 176-204). The lower four levels of the pyramid (Psychological needs, safety, love and belonging and achievement) are referred to as the deficiency needs, “D-needs”. The psychological needs include provision of shelter, food, clothing, water, sleep and good functioning of the body to allow a balance in homeostasis and excretion (Vallerand 2000, 312-318).
The safety needs includes personal security, financial security and the overall well-being of an individual. The next two levels of the pyramid include the provision of social needs such as friendship, support from the society and community and self esteem obtained through the accomplishment of stipulated goals and objectives. In his study he argued that human beings must first achieve the lowest rank of their needs in order to achieve the needs in the higher rank (Weiner et al.
2003, 38). However, the theory has been criticized to overly on the optimistic side of human nature generalizing it while in actual sense human beings depict different human natures. This is because the self fulfilment, confidence, sense of security and self acceptance among others are characteristics not found in all individuals thus weakening the concept behind the theory. The other issue raised by critics is that this theory fails to account for behavioural change influenced by the ever changing society and environment (Keith & Asthmus 2001, 149-159). The bio-psychological theories link the brain and the environment surrounding it to a specific activity which motivates the individual to emanate certain behavioural characteristics (Frankl 1978, 95-104).
For instance people may decide to engage in criminal activities as they perceive the activity to bring forth more benefits such as emotional gain, material wealth and obtaining individual justice among others. On the other hand the emotional benefits achieved from these activities divert the attention of an individual from the actual draw backs of criminal activities thereby further motivating the individual (Chamjorro-Premuzic 2007, 56). In reference to the above theories it is quite clear that the two men decided to climb Siula Grande an outrageous height out of their free will which was mainly motivated by previous actions of other historians who had managed to climb mountains that seemed impossible. The recognition, praise and remembrance of those heroic activities encouraged the two men to pursue their dream because of the de-reflection of their psychology which enabled them to focus their attention away from the dangers which they could have faced. Therefore, they optimistically accepted the challenge of climbing Siula Grande mountain an attitude developed by their risk taking and curious traits. They also stipulated the paradoxical intention by emanating the right activity as they managed to ignore their neurosis because they aimed at attaining specific attributes for their efforts and potential. Therefore, they emulated the wrong activity because they manage to overcome their obsessive ideas with their neurotic compulsions which depict their extrovert and conscientious nature. Furthermore, the two men were influenced by unconscious motivational forces that enabled them strive in achieving their goal of overcoming death in their horrific moments.
The efforts stimulated by the able man to save his partner were deterministic in that he behaved unconsciously while responding to forces beyond his control. He was also able to emanate the right passivity behavioural pattern because he managed to overcome his fears and decided to save his partner. This can be attributed to the fact that the able man emanated dutiful and compassionate acts in the attempt of helping his friend.
On the other hand the behaviour of the able man of leaving his partner on the mountain can be attributed to the wrong passivity behaviour pattern as he was in a dilemma and was thus trying to fight his anxiety and fear thereby opted for the simplest solution of solving his paradigm. He was motivated by the benefit ahead of him that is saving his own life rather than losing both their lives, which he justified with the fact that his friend was beyond help. The weak man stimulated the paradoxical intention by emulating the wrong activity in an attempt of saving his life thus relied on his self determination and dutiful and compassionate acts that helped him to gather the required strength to crawl and hop to the base camp in spite of his deteriorated well being because he was weak due to lack of food, water and poor health from the injuries he had attained.Historical and social context of theoretical approaches of personality and individual indifferences The paradoxical intention theory was formulated by Frankl in an attempt of devising logo therapeutic strategies of handling patients that emanated phobic, obsessive and compulsive conditions. The context of this theory also helped him to therapeutically treat patients that suffered somatic illnesses such as heart diseases. Today this theory is used to treat patients suffering from sleep disturbances and other psychological disorders. The big five personality theory was formulated when Sir Francis Galton studied the different personality traits exhibited by people in a social gathering whereby he formulated a hypothesis that linked personality traits with body, verbal or action language of individuals. Gordon Allport and H.
S. Ordbert relied on this hypothesis to describe the relative permanent personality traits they formulated. In the 1940s Raymond Cattell devised the personality sphere from the earlier devised list of relatively permanent personality traits which contained sixteen major personality factors (Carducci 2009, 543). Earnest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961 discovered that among the personality factors outlined by Cattell five of them were recurring. This new discovery was later supported by Warren Norman who categorized the recurring factors as agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and culture. In the 1980s researchers and scientists discovered that some certain patterns of human behaviour correlated with the five personality factors which were termed as the Big Five by Lewis Goldberg (Pervian & Oliver 2001, 231-578). This was followed by a plethora of research studies to fully outline these five personality traits in regard to the different behaviours that are emanated by human beings. However, this theory has been bombarded with criticism as it is related to the provision of insufficient information on human personality because the theory is not dependent as it relies on data driven research which contain analysis of factors clustered together due to the categorization of individuals.
Current research is aimed at detecting if the big five personality theory is reliable because of lack of certain descriptive adjectives in local languages of some nations for instance in Hungry there are no adjectives that directly describe agreeable personality traits (Fruyt et al. 2004, 207-215). The psychoanalytical theory was first formulated in the 1980s by Sigmund Freud as he studied the cause of neurotic and hysterical behaviour of his patients (Morrison 2007, 10-24).
Freud formulated the topographical theory where he explained the human brain to contain unconscious force that is the condensed thoughts and conscious force that contain the logical thoughts which both manipulate the behaviour of human beings. Some of the diagnostic evaluations that Freud made led to the discovery of self identification or realization motivational forces which also manipulated the overall behaviour of human beings. In 1923 he formulated the structural theory which elaborated on the id, ego and superego mentality of individuals (Hersen et al. 2005, 496). These concepts were further outlined by Anna Freud, Sigmund daughter, when she studied the defence mechanism exhibited by human beings.
These concepts were later utilized by scholars during the attempt of understanding the psychology of development of children emanated in their behaviours. Karen Horney also relied on Freud’s theories to study the development of women in conjunction to their stimulated behaviours. Today there are over 3000 psychoanalyst graduates in America and over 40 training institutes which stipulates the mandate demanded by the International Psychoanalytical Association. However, psychoanalysis faces some degree of rejection as critics term the theory as irrefutable because the concepts it stipulates are immeasurable (Morrison 2007, 10-24). The behaviourist theory was first formulated by B.
F. Skinner as he attempted to study the result of human behaviour where he linked it to the individual interaction with the external environment (Sahakian 1968a, 492-494). This concept was later expounded on by Richard Herrnstein to account for the attitudes and traits exhibited by human beings. In the twentieth century Ivan Pavlov in his attempt of studying operant respondent discovered conditioned, unconditioned and neutral stimulus-response as he conducted classical experiments on a dog using meat and a bell (Dautenhahn 2000, 256). John Watson used the same principles to study the effect of stimulants on humans when he used an eleven month year old baby in his experiment.
Watson discovered that humans too portray the same stimulus-response like animals (Dautenhahn 2000, 213). Albert Bandura discovered reciprocal determinism as he studied adolescent aggression which he used to elaborate the social cognitive theory of human being behaviours. This concept was later utilized by Georg Kelly to derive a psychotherapy approach which helped his patients to rediscover themselves and thus find a purpose for their lives (Dautenhahn 2000, 237). The humanistic theories begun along time ago but were highly emphasized by Carl Rogers in the twentieth century when he explained that human beings are motivated by their self realization in his activities of fostering healthy growth. Rogers related the behaviour of human beings to the notion of individuals describing themselves while relating their current self to the ideal self they desire to be (Sahakian 1968b, 503-508). His theory was later expounded on by other scientists, scholars and researchers including Abraham Maslow in the 1950s who related the concept to a business environment. Maslow formulated the hierarchy of needs which employers need to capitalize on in order to harness the maximum potential from his employees.
Maslow explained that with maximum satisfaction, growth and happiness then individuals are able to perform to their highest capabilities (Dautenhahn 2000, 195). The bio-psychological theory came into practice in the 1848 after Phineas Gage a railroad construction foreman was involved in an accident where a large iron rod was driven through his head. This affected the behaviour of Gage which attracted the interest of medical practitioners to determine the root cause for the psychological changes he depicted. The nineteenth century scientists and scholars came to a main conclusion that the brain contains important features that affect the personality and behaviour of human beings (Sahakian 1968c, 355-359). Wilson and Herrnstein used the outlined concepts to describe why certain people are involved in criminal activities. The two explained that criminals are motivated by the thrill and the potential benefits of their activities and thus do not consider the aftermath of their actions at that particular moment (Matthews et al. 2003, 58-77).
The surveys they conducted elaborated that potential criminals do not feel remorseful or guilty unlike the others who are less likely to break the law. Mears, Plonger and Warr used the concepts behind the theory to group individuals in accordance to their capability of engaging in unlawful acts. For instance they mentioned that girls are less likely to engage in criminal activities than boys while women have a higher tendency of feeling remorseful and guilty than men. Therefore, according to researchers the psychological state of people motivates them to engage in particular activities thus influencing their behaviours (Matthews et al. 2003, 63).Conclusion It is quite clear from the above theories that the attitude of an individual is developed from the surrounding environment and the people the individual is relating with.
Therefore, researchers can rely on the paradoxical intention theory to help stimulate a positive psychology of the Australian youths thus decrease the crime rate and delinquent behaviour that has become a menace to the society.Word Count: 3387List of referencesBaumeister, R. F. ; Vohs, K. D. (2004), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications, New York: Guilford Press.Berger, K. (2004), The developing person through the life span (6th edition), NY: Worth Publishers.
Camus, A. (1955), ‘The myth of Sisyphus’, in The myth of Sisyphus and other essays, trans. by Justin O’Brien, Hamish Hamilton, London, UK.
Carducci, B. (2009), The psychology of personality (2nd edition), Hoboken, NJ: Wiley- Blackwell.Carver, C. S. & Scheier, M.
F. (2001), On the self-regulation of behaviour, New York: Cambridge University Press.Cervone, D.
, Shadel, W. G., Smith, R. E. & Fiori, M. (2006), “Self-Regulation: reminders and suggestions from personality science”, Applied Psychology: An International Review 55(3), 333-385.Chamjorro-Premuzic, T. (2007), Personality and individual differences, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley- Blackwell.
Corisini, R. & Wedding, D. (2000), Various extracts in “Current psychotherapies”, F. E. Peacock Publishers, 175-180, 248-253.Dautenhahn, K. (2000), Human cognition and social agent technology, Herndon, VA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Deci. E. L. & Ryan. R. M. (2000), “The “what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behaviour,” Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-269.Frankl, V.
E. (1967), ‘Paradoxical intention: a logotherapeutic technique’, in Psychotherapy and existentialism: selected papers on logotherapy, Penguin, Harmondsworth, UK., pp.
136-154.Frankl, V. E. (1978), ‘Group psychotherapeutic experiences in a concentration camp’, in Psychotherapy and existentialism: selected papers on logotherapy, Penguin, Harmondsworth, UK., pp. 95-104.Fruyt, F., McCrae, R.
R., Szirmák, Z., ; Nagy, J. (2004). “The Five-Factor personality inventory as a measure of the Five-Factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R”.
Assessment, 11, 207-215.Hersen, M., Thomas, J. ; Segal, D. (2005), Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.Horvath, A.
(2001), “The Alliance”, Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice, training 38, 365–372.Katzenbach, J. (2003), Why pride matters more than money: the power of the world’s greatest motivational forces, NY: Crown Business.Keith, J.
& Asmus, C. (2001). “Personality, cognitive skills, and creativity in different life domains,” Creativity Research Journal, 13(2), 149-159.Matthews, G.
, Deary, I. & Whiteman, M. (2003), Personality traits ( 2nd edition), NY: Cambridge University Press.May, R.
& Yalom, I. (2000), ‘Existential psychotherapy: theory of personality’, in Corsini, R. J. & Wedding D, (Eds), Current psychotherapies, 6th edn, Thomson Brooks/Cole, South Melbourne, Vic., pp. 282-288.Morris N, E. (2007), “Psychoanalytic Psychology”, Psychoanalysis and its Critics 24, 10–24.
Pelletier, L. G., Fortier. M. S.
, Valler, R. J., & Brière. N. M. (2002). “Perceived autonomy support, levels of self-determination, and persistence: a longitudinal investigation; motivation and emotion,” Psychological inquiry 25(4), 279-306.
Pervian, L. & Oliver, J. (2001), Handbook of personality: theory and research (2nd edition), NY: Guilford Press.
Pine, F. (1989), “Motivation, personality organization and the four psychologies of psychoanalysis,” Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association 37, 31-61.Reiss, S. (2000), Who am I: the 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities, New York: Tarcher/Putnam.Reiss, S. (2004), “Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: the theory of 16 basic desires”, Review of General Psychology 8(3), 179-193.Sahakian, W.
S. (Ed) (1968a), ‘Edmund Husserl’, in History of psychology: a source book in systematic psychology, Peacock, Itasca, IL., pp.
492-494.Sahakian, W. S. (Ed) (1968b), ‘Jean-Paul Sartre’, in History of psychology: a source book in s systematic psychology, Peacock, Itasca, IL., pp. 503-508.Sahakian, W.
S. (Ed) (1968c), ‘Viktor E. Frankl’, in History of psychology: a source book in systematic psychology, Peacock, Itasca, IL., pp. 355-359.
Shah, J. & Gardner, W. (2007), Handbook of motivation science, NY: Guilford Press.Vallerand, R. J. (2000), “Deci & Ryan’s Self-determination theory: A view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation,” Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 312-318.
Weiner, I., Freedheim, D., Million, T., Schinka, J., Lerner, M. ; Verlicer, W.
(2003), Handbook of psychology: personality and social psychology, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.;