The Cause and Contributions of Teen PregnancyCause of Teen PregnancyThe factors that lead to teen pregnancy can vary, Teens who lack parental guidance are likely to become pregnant. Most parents avoid the conversations of sex with teenagers. In most cases teenage mothers don’t have a lot of background information on sex. Peer pressure is another factor of teen pregnancy. Teenage boys and girls are pressured to give in to sexual intercourse. Early dating can start as early as 12 years old. Exploitation by older men can be another cause. Older men put younger females into higher risks to become pregnant by them manipulating them into thinking they’re mature enough for the relationship. Rape can also take a poll into unwanted pregnancy. Girls who have poor education are more likely to become pregnant then a successful student. One third of young teen females drop out of school before pregnancy (Maynard, 1995). Experiences with poverty such as examples of unmarried parenthood and unemployment, and the struggle of education opportunities and a solid career choice all go to the perceived fundings of early mother’s (Brewster et al., 1993; Luker, 1996; Moore, Morrison, & Glei, 1995).Contributing Factors Peer pressure is the number one cause on teen pregnancy. The influence of teenage friends to have sex is very common since they use the term “everybody’s doing it”. Even though teenagers don’t think/know the consequences of having unprotected sex, they do it anyway under the pressure of their peers (2017, February 21). Adolescent pregnancy can also be linked to drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse is high to teen pregnancy. 16% of teens were more likely to drink alcohol which resulted them to pregnancy. While 14% of teens gotten pregnant who have used marijuana (Partnership News Service Staff.) School districts have forgotten how serious this issue is regarding teenagers and the use of sexual intercourse. Sex ed programs have been pulled out of most schools due to the funding of the school (Einhorn, E. 2015, June 29). Economic reasons that lead to teen pregnancy is 44% of participants depend on mother’s income. So if a young girl got pregnant, not only will she be depending on her mother’s income but her baby will as well. Teenage girls who are in poor homes are likely to get pregnant. Impact Young girls who give birth in their young stages while still developing will have a hard time functioning than numerous peers who did not childbear. Low education level will occur after teen is pregnant due to dropping out or birth spacing. Drop out is a high risks during pregnancy, and most drop out before or after giving birth. Only 30% come back to school and graduate. (Upchurch & McCarthy, 1990). Economic outcomes during teen pregnancy which the largest part of being education once again. Teen parents have a lower income as adults and become more likely to get on welfare than a non-adolescent teen who delayed childbirth. (Moore, et., 1993). During the social/psychological process of adolescent pregnancy, working on the overall basis of teenage sexuality decisions (Allen, Philliber, Herrling, & Kuperminc, in press), the work on the preadolescents’ understanding their sexual situations. Paikoff (1995). There was research on the emotional deprivation of adolescent pregnancy, starting with girls who don’t have emotional support and stability may cause early sex and pregnancy. (Horwitz et al,. 1991; Musick, 1993). Diversity Among Teen PregnancyRacial Differences Most of the research used on adolescent pregnancies is also used for the race and ethnicity. Later income and poverty rates are not as severe for African Americans than for Whites and Hispanics. African Americans have the highest rate of single parenthood and poverty (Astone, 1993; Moore et al., 1993). White adolescent mothers will marry following by Hispanics and then African Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1995). Most African American teenagers will continue living with their family after they have gave birth and will continue school, but most likely will delay on getting married. Which then they will access help from their family members for financial support (Rosenheim & Testa, 1992). Many African Americans have tended to experience the highest rate of diabetics, which means they are most likely to receive financial aid from their families and the government during their teenage lives more likely than their adult lives (Geronimus, 1987; 1992). Involvement/Impact of Teenage Fathers Teenage fathers are rarely discussed during the research of teen pregnancy. Many cases, most researchers don’t even include the basic information on the father. The father most often tends to be 2 to 3 years older than the mother (Coley & Chase-Lansdale, under review; Landry & Forrest, 1995; Robinson, 1988). Just like adolescent mothers, teen fathers may also be poor, and continue to live off low- income communities, and also have a bad education level (Lerman, 1993). Most of the time, parenting has a negative effect on both the mother and father but in this case it is referred to the father. Which causes stress towards them leading them to commit, or just vanish. Boys who actually father during the adolescent years work more harder and work more hours than a person who is non-adolescent. Due to this, they lose focus on school, and have a lower long term labor and earnings than their peers who aren’t adolescent parents (Brien & Willis, 1997; Marsiglio, 1986). Financial Contributions Young fathers most of the time rarely have enough financial support for the teen mother and their child. Even if most start off with a desire to provide for their kid, their support is extremely low. Eventually, legal child support arrangements will be made. This is due to the Family Support Act of 1988 (Chase-Lansdale & Vinovskis, 1995). Psychological Functioning This is another topic that has been ignored during the research process of teenage pregnancy. Adolescent fathers are more accepting to the fact of teenage pregnancy and abortion than non-adolescent pregnancy (Robinson, 1998). The effect of early fatherhood on young teenage boys is hard for them to emotionally function. Causing them to break down wanting and deserving further attention. Government Programs That Have Been Used The government has used different types of programs to prevent teen pregnancy such as having a sex ed. Class during High School. And even teens who end up do becoming pregnant have programs for them to get on the right track such as “planned parenthood”. There has been numerous programs used to help teenage mothers who have gave birth another chance at school by letting them get their GED, better than high school completion. A couple programs used for teenage mothers such as welfare or planned parenthood. Conclusion The most appalling conclusion I myself can draw from this research paper is the equivalent studies on bothe young male and female adolescents, more policy implications that mainly concern teenage pregnancy, the development of the young male and female psychological and social patterns parenting. Psychology have played a major role in this broad topic. Understanding and documenting the sexual behavior is way well underway. But much more psychological research is needed to examine the consequences of teenage pregnancy and childbearing. The main topic was teenage pregnancy consequences, which also included ideas for trying to reduce nonmarital births in young boys and girls. ReferencesAllen, J.p., Philliber, S., Herrling, S., & Kuperminc, G. P. (in press). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally-based approach. Child Development.Astone, N. M. (1993). Are adolescent mothers just single mothers? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 3, 353-372.Brien, M. J. & Willis, R. J. (1997). Costs and consequences for the fathers. In R. A. Maynard, (ED), Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences for teen pregnancy (pp. 95-144).