The routes designed to avoid collision and

The material
handling systems used in advanced manufacturing are automated guided vehicles(AGVs)
or mobile robots6.

Researches done
on AGV till today, focus on the functions of AGV on moving materials and
products. They also aim at finding optimal paths for AGV, routes designed to
avoid collision and deadlocks. The AGV prototype has been developed to create a
framework for a co-ordinate environment providing most efficient mode of
transferring many types of materials in and out of a factory or manufacture
setting 1.  

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The fully
automated vehicles should have the ability to drive safe and smooth in
traffics. Path tracking, steering, obstacle avoidance and traffic laws must be
considered in the driving goals. Some ethical principles are designed to
prevent vehicle from causing harm to humans, damage to itself or other objects
or from violating traffic rules. Also the vehicle must be able to handle the
situation like if an obstacle appears in the path, it must deviate. Obstacle
avoidance has a high priority in roadways 2.

Docking is
defined as the arrival and stopping a position relative to other object. Also
it includes positioning of vehicle or equipment onboard the vehicle relative to
other object. The docking stage was implemented by introducing a vital target
between the current mobile robot position and the final target location. The
design of AGV also faces control problems like collision and deadlock along
with guide-path routing. To solve collision problems, sensors are attached with
the vehicle 4.

The vehicle’s position
can be gathered by the data obtained by the Infra-Red (IR) sensors. A sensor
controller can be used to keep the AGV on the track. Also, additional IR
sensors can be used on front and side of the vehicle to detect obstacles and
stations respectively. Unless the obstacle from the path is removed, the AGV
stops and whenever it restarts after stopping, it recalls its operation 3.