The Users Of Financial Statements Accounting Essay

This study intends to give a brief fiscal mentality of company E 215. The study starts with an debut of a figure of traditional accounting constructs and international accounting criterions that are applicable in fixing the fiscal statements of Company E 215. It besides gives the chief features of fiscal statements that make them utile for their intended users along with a brief reappraisal of the chief users of fiscal statement users. The function of external hearers is besides reviewed along with its relationship to internal hearers and the difference in range of work of internal and external hearers. The study concludes with an analysis of the fiscal statements of Company E 215 through a figure of ratios.

Task a )

A figure of traditional accounting constructs have been applied in geting at the information presented in the test balance and the accommodations at that place of. Following is a brief description of each construct along with the computations to get at the concluding figures to be presented in fiscal statements.

Traveling Concern: Traveling concern infers that “ the concern is traveling on steadily merchandising from twelvemonth to twelvemonth without cut downing its operations. ” ( Financial Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p14 )

It implies that all non-current assets should be measured at their cyberspace book value ( cost less accrued depreciation ) instead than on a interruption up footing. The intervention of tools & A ; equipment and vehicles is in conformity with the traveling concern construct.

Matching Concept: Matching construct infers that “ the gross earned in a period to be linked with related costs. ” ( Financial Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p17 )

Matching construct is regarded same as the accumulations construct and it gives rise to accumulations and prepayments in the balance sheet. The intervention of Insurance, Travel & A ; Subsistence and Provision for Corporation revenue enhancement is in conformity with the fiting construct.

The insurance premium includes a premium of ?2,196 but the whole of this premium does n’t associate to this twelvemonth ‘s gross so we ‘ll merely acknowledge the sum that is related to this twelvemonth. As a consequence, we ‘ll cut down the insurance premium by the sum that does n’t associate to this twelvemonth and acknowledge same sum as a prepayment, ?549 ( ?2196 X 3/12 ) . The insurance premium will be recognized in an sum of ?6,018 = ?6,567 – ?549.

Travel & A ; Subsistence disbursal excludes a dealing of ?1,278 since it was n’t paid but we ‘ll acknowledge this sum in conformity with the matching construct because it related to this twelvemonth ‘s gross. So Travel & A ; Subsistence disbursal will be recognized in an sum of ?19,619 =?18, 341 + ?1,278

Unsecured bond involvement for the twelvemonth is ?3,150 = ?45,000 X 7 % but it is recognized in test balance at an sum of ?1,575. We ‘ll acknowledge the whole sum of unsecured bond involvement since the whole disbursal is incurred in gaining this twelvemonth gross so the unsecured bond involvement for the twelvemonth will be ?3,150.

The Provision for Corporation Tax during the twelvemonth is ?24,873 and we ‘ll acknowledge the whole sum as an disbursal since it related to this twelvemonth ‘s gross and net income.

Business Entity Concept: Business entity construct infers that “ the personal businesss of a concern are distinguished from the personal personal businesss of the proprietors. ” ( Financial Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p18 )

In conformity with the concern entity construct, the capital ( which includes the investing and maintained net incomes ) is treated as a liability that is collectible to the proprietor of the concern.

Task B )

The undermentioned IAS needs to be applied to the accommodation in order to cipher the concluding figures to be presented in fiscal statements.

IAS 2 Inventory: IAS 2 trades with the intervention of stock list and requires that the stock list should be treated at the lower of cost and NRV. The intervention of shuting stock list of ?89,409 in accommodation 2 is in conformity with IAS 2. ( IAS 2 )

IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment: IAS 16 trades with the intervention of touchable non-current assets and require that these points should be valued at their cyberspace book value ( Historical Cost lupus erythematosus Accumulated Depreciation ) . The intervention of Vehicles and Tools & A ; Equipment is in conformity with IAS 16. ( IAS 16 )

Tools & A ; Equipment Motor Vehicles

Historical Cost ?292,410 ?268,600

Depreciation footing ( Straight Line ) 5 % 25 %

Depreciation ( Cost X Dep. Basis ) ?14,621 ?67,150

Accumulated Depreciation ?63,494 ?98,105

Net Book Value ?228,916 ?170,495

IAS 23 Borrowing Costss: IAS 23 trades with the intervention of adoption costs and requires that borrowing costs should be capitalized if they relate to the building of non-current plus. There ‘s no such indicant for the unsecured bonds of ?45,000 and its associated cost of ?3,150 so we ‘ll write off the whole sum. ( IAS 23 )

IAS 12 Income Tax: Iowa 12 trades with the intervention of corporation revenue enhancement and requires that this twelvemonth ‘s income revenue enhancement should be matched against this twelvemonth ‘s gross in the statement of comprehensive income. In conformity with IAS 12, we ‘ll write off the proviso for corporation revenue enhancement of ?24,873. ( IAS 12 )

The intervention of Insurance Premium has already been discussed in undertaking a.

Task degree Celsius )

IAS 18 Gross: trades with the intervention of gross and requires that “ Revenue shall be measured at the just value of the consideration received or receivable. ” ( IAS 18 ) Fair Value is by and large the sum of hard currency or the sum at which an plus would be purchased or a liability settled between knowing willing parties in an arms-length dealing. The gross revenues gross ?423,677 has been recognized in conformity with IAS 18.

IAS 23 Borrowing Costss: depict the intervention of borrowing cost. The intervention of unsecured bond involvement is in conformity with IAS 23 and has been described in item in undertaking B.

IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilitiess: trades with the intervention of commissariats and contingent points like proviso for bad debts. The proviso for corporation revenue enhancement is in conformity with the intervention of IAS 37.

Task D )

IASB describes four chief features of fiscal statements.

Comprehensibility: Comprehensibility means that information presented to the users should non be so complex such that a user with considerable concern, economic sciences and accounting cognition would non be able to understand it.

Relevance: Information should be relevant to its intended intent. An of import bomber feature of relevancy is Materiality which means that all information whose skip or misstatement could act upon the economic determination of users should be presented in fiscal statements.

Dependability: Dependability is an of import feature of utile fiscal statement and incorporates the undermentioned bomber features.

Faithful Representation: All information presented must stand for dependably its minutess.

Substance over Form: Information should stand for the economic world of minutess instead than mere its legal signifier.

Neutrality: All information should be free from prejudice and aim.

Prudence: Prudence requires that information should be presented in such a manner that assets and income are non overstated and disbursals and liabilities are non understated.

Completeness: All material information should be presented in fiscal statements.

Comparison: Information should be comparable over clip and against other company ‘s fiscal statements. ( Fiscal Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p14-15 )

Users of Fiscal Statements:

Equity Investors: Investors require fiscal information to do investing determinations sing the company.

Banks and other Financial Institutions: Banks require fiscal information to measure whether the concern will probably be able to refund its loans.

Creditors and Debtors: Customers and providers need fiscal information to maintain an oculus on the concern and guarantee that their ain concern may non be affected by the fiscal failure of concern

Employees: Employee requires information to measure their occupation security and for future publicity and fillips

Government: Government requires fiscal information through Inland Revenue to find the revenue enhancement liability of the concern. ( Fiscal Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p5 )

Task E )

“ An external hearer is person from outside the company who investigates the accounting systems and minutess and ensures, every bit far as they are able, that the fiscal statements have been prepared in conformity with the underlying books, the Torahs and applicable accounting criterions. ” ( ( Financial Accounting QCF Level 6 Unit, p24 )

External hearers are non responsible to observe or forestall fraud. Compared to external hearers, internal hearers portion of the company and they help to guarantee the adequateness of internal controls within the company and to observe and forestall fraud. An external hearer demand is a qualified comptroller while there is no such demand for internal hearers. External hearers study to the proprietors while internal hearers report straight to the direction.

Task F )

Company 215 utilizations two chief beginnings of long term finance.

Share Capital: Share capital is the chief beginning of finance for companies. It is considered expensive compared to the loan capital because of the higher hazard. Its large advantage is that direction does n’t hold to pay dividend each twelvemonth and can jump dividend in instance the company is short of hard currency. Another advantage is that stockholders are proprietors of the company and take portion in determination devising sing assignment of the board of managers.

Unsecured bonds: Unsecured bonds are less expensive compared to portion capital. Its 2nd advantage is that the cost is fixed for unsecured bonds. The disadvantage is that the involvement has to be paid each twelvemonth even if the company does n’t gain any net income. Another disadvantage is that unsecured bond holders are non proprietors of the company and do n’t take portion in determination devising.

Task G )

Analysis of Fiscal Statements: Company 215 ‘s fiscal statements show a good fiscal place. The statement of Comprehensive Income studies a healthy gross net income of ?294,555 and net net income of ?84,030. Depreciation represents more than 40 % of entire disbursal stand foring a good investing in touchable non-current assets. Statement of Financial Position besides shows a healthy investing in non-current assets consisting 65 % of whole assets. Retained net incomes are 56 % of entire liabilities, stand foring a hard currency keeping policy by the direction.

Profitableness Analysis: Profitableness ratios show the ratio of gross and net net income compared to the gross. E 215 ‘s studies a gross net income border of about 70 % and net net income border around 20 % . Gross net income border of 70 % shows that the company is working at a higher terminal of the market, selling premium merchandises which are largely sold at a higher net income border.

Liquid Analysis: Liquidity ratios show the ratio of current assets compared to current liabilities. The current ratio of 1.9 represents that current assets are about double compared to current liabilities which is a good mark for the company. The speedy ratio of 1.1 besides shows a good mark for the company ‘s fiscal strength.

Efficiency Analysis: The efficiency ratio ‘s show the quality of direction in pull offing company ‘s working capital i.e. receivables, payables and stock list. The receivables aggregation period shows how long it takes the company to retrieve its receivables while payables payment period demo how long it takes the company to pay its current payables. Receivables aggregation period of 103 yearss and payables payment period of 182 yearss shows good control over receivables and payables. The stock list turnover period indicates how long it takes the company to sell its stock list on norm. An stock list turnover period of 253 yearss represent that the company sells slow traveling stock list, most likely premium merchandises as indicated in the fiscal statement analysis

Gearing Ratio: Gearing ratio shows the ratio of loan capital to portion capital in a company. A pitching ratio of 9 % for E 215 represents that the company merely uses 9 % loan capital and the remaining of the capital is financed through portions.


Statement of Comprehensive Income for the twelvemonth terminal 30 Apr 2006

Gross 423,677

Cost of Sale

Opening Stock 41,214

Purchases 177,317

Closing Stock ( 89,409 )

( 129,122 )

Gross Net income 294,555

Other Income

Interest Received 1,630


Employee costs 50,317

Depreciation 81,771

Unsecured bond Interest 3,150

Gas & A ; Electricity 10,720

Insurance Expense 6,018

Rent & A ; Rates 15,091

Travel & A ; Subsistence Expenses 19,619

Sundry Expenses 596

Entire Expenses ( 187,282 )

Net Net income 108,903

Corporation Tax ( 24,873 )

Net Net income After Tax 84,030

Dividends Paid ( 8,190 )

Retained Net incomes for the twelvemonth 75,840

Retained Net incomes b/f 271,857

Retained Net incomes c/f 347,697

Statement of Financial Position as at 30 April 2006

Assetss ?

Non Current Assetss:

Tools & A ; Equipment 228,916

Motor Vehicles 170495

Current Assetss

Trade Debtors 119,799

Cash 12,619

Stock 89,409

Prepayments 549

Entire 621,787

Capital & A ; Liabilitiess


Ordinary Shares 91,000

Share Premium Account 22,000

Retained Net incomes 347,697


Non Current Liabilitiess:

Unsecured bond 45,000

Current Liabilitiess:

Trade Creditors 88364

Corporation Tax 24873

Accumulations 2853

Entire 621,787


Profitability Ratios

Gross Profit Margin = Gross Net income


= 294,555 = 69.5 %


Net Net income Margin = Net Net income


= 84,030 = 20 %


Liquidity Ratios

Current Ratio = Current Assetsaˆ¦ .

Current Liabilitiess

= 222,376 = 1.91 Timess


Quick Ratio = Current Assets less Stock

Current Liabilitiess

= 132,967 = 1.15


Efficiency Ratios

Receivables Collection Period = Trade Receivables X 365

Entire Gross saless

= 119,799 Ten 365 = 103 Dayss


Payabless Payment Period = Trade Payables X 365

Entire Purchases

= 88,364

177,317 X 365 = 182 Dayss

Inventory Turnover Period = Closing Stock X 365

Cost of Sale

= 89,409 Ten 365 = 253 Dayss


Gearing Ratios

Gearing Ratio = Loan Capital

Loan + Share Capital

= . 45,000

45000 + 91000 + 22000 + 347,697

= 9 %