The difference between top managers






            The four management functions:
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling


The difference between top managers and middle managers
are that the top managers lead the company toward an overall direction, which
should be followed by middle managers. They tend to make the big important
decisions for the company. Examples of top managers include a Chief
executive officer (CEO), Chief operating officer (COO), Chief financial officer
(CFO), and Chief information officer (CIO). While middle managers
develop shorter-term goals and plans that help to fulfill overall daily or
monthly goals developed by top managers. They lead divisions and departments in
the achievement of these goals. Examples of middle managers include a plant
manager, a division manager, and a regional manager.

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Max Weber is credited with the idea of bureaucracy. Max weber
belevied in running organizations on the basis of knowledge, quality, and backround
experience rather than on the basis of favoritism. Bureaucracies are
characterized by: qualification-based hiring;
merit-based promotion; chain of command; division of labor; impartial
application of rules and procedures; all administrative
decisions, acts, rules, or procedures are recorded in writing; and managers
are separate from owners. Administrative management was brought to by Henri
Fayol, who argued that the success of an organization
depended more on the administrative ability of its leaders than on their technical
ability. Fayol developed 5 management functions that include: planning, organizing,
coordinating, commanding, and controlling and 14 principles of management: division of
work, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of
direction, subordination of individual interests to the
general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability
of tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps. He is also known for
his belief that management could and should be
taught to others


Contingency management supports this objective
through the creation of plans, procedures and technical measures that can
enable the efficient recovery of business operations following a business
disruption or disaster.