theory

Uses and Gratification (U & G) Theoryhas been the main theory of communication that explains what people do with themedia (Aisar &Mohd & Nur 2016). Uses and gratifications theory isapplicable in explaining a variety of media uses and consequences. It assumesthat individuals select media and content to fulfill their needs (Zhang 2012).  It is apsychological communication perspective that examines how individuals use massmedia.

Individuals select media and content to fulfill felt needs and wants.These needs are expressed as motives for adopting particular medium use, andare connected to the social and psychological makeup of the individual. Basedon perceive needs, social and psychological characteristics, and mediaattributes, individuals use media and experience related gratifications. Theperspective can be used to understand a variety of media uses and consequences.It assumes relatively active audiences, which consciously selects content andmedia to satisfy specific needs or desires (Zizi 2008).

In today’s society, socialmedia can also fit in the definition of user generated media (Jacques &Abbas & Yasha 2013). Theemergence of social media and its emphasis on participation modes of use hasmany significant implications for the study of media and society more broadly.As social media has become a participative medium now, people’s onlineexperience increasingly involves methods of actively providing informationabout what they are doing, or what they think of something. This might be assimple as a Facebook ‘like’ button. Participation can take various forms ofagency from user generated content, in which users forward content made by theuser. Every time audience participates or partake in various forms of labor sharingfrom creative and social to emotional and affective labor (Sam & Larissa2012). Moreover, users process photographs, charts and other visualcommunication, such as video, these stimuli are consumed and sometimes resultin reactions. For example, Facebook ‘shares’ and ‘likes’, Twitter ‘favourites’and ‘re-tweets’, Pinterest board ‘pins’ follow consumption.

At the same time, auser decision to post new content or share content from others may result inadditional response from others (Jeremy 2015). FromPublic Relations perspective, it is described as thegeneral activity on the web where consumers contribute their own control oftheir own content. Thiscontent could be conversation onforums and social network sites in general, posts and comments on blogs,product reviews on product review sites, videos on video sites and general onlineinteractive sites.It includes all the new media technologies that anorganization’s publics can use to express their views about organization on theInternet (Feng &Li 2009). In short,Public Relations Practitioners use social media as a platform to create contentto achieve the purpose of improving company image.

  2.6 Two-way symmetrical communication model Two-way symmetricalcommunication model is one of the communication model proposed by Grunig.Initially, two-way symmetrical communication appears tobe an assumption that dialogue, which is often alluded to as symmetricalengagement between two participants, is the ideal form of communication inPublic Relations practice.

Innetworked communication environments the audiences are no longer simplyconsumers of media: they have become participants. The internet-based media isparticipative because it is two-way. One aspect of participation is publicresponse. Commenting on a news story in an online newspaper is a kind ofparticipation, although it is a kind of participation that rehearses earliertypes of media such as radio talkback and letters to the editor of a newspaper.This kind of participation is something that has been written about widely,especially in social media and Web-2.

0-branded marketing texts. The commonexhortation is that the web is a conversation, a rhetoric that has become acontemporary business mantra (Sam & Larissa 2012). From organization’sview, two-way symmetrical communication focuses ontwo-way communication as a means of conflict resolution and for the promotionof mutual understanding between an organization and its important publics (Petra & Khairiah 2017). While frompublic relations’ perspective, social media have a hugeimpact moving public relations into the direction of facilitating more two-waycommunication by opening up direct channels of communications betweenorganizations and their publics as well as enhancing and facilitating mutual understanding (Donald2008).

The practice of public relations is evolving andthe two-way symmetrical model is a teeter-totter that is slowly moving frombeing unequally balanced on the side of corporate and government interest andis moving toward a more balanced center (Adrianne 2007). Usingtwo-way communication, practitioners now hope that their communication effortswill result in knowledge gain, understanding, and other high-order cognitiveeffects that are more likely to underpin longer-lasting relationships (Petra & Khairiah 2017). Somethink that two-way communication brings with it thepotential to enhance authenticity, accountability and transparency (Donald 2008). Hence, publicrelations departments in organizations and consultancies are using social media in ways that exploit their interactivetwo-way communication capabilities (Jim 2010). In short,by using social media, PRP are able to achieve two-way symmetricalcommunication with their public.