This recent report, supply and demand of cosmetics

This study explored the textual, social and discursive
techniques employed in the Snapchat advertisement of beauty products in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, it investigates how such discursive techniques contribute
in affecting women idealized image. The analysis showed that ideologies are
implied in social media advertisements. It also discussed the consequence of
the spread of such ideologies and the companies could not supply the stores
with products due to the increase in demand.

        After this
analysis, part of the change and awareness that Fairclough called for, it is
important to know how does textual, social and discursive techniques contribute
in affecting women idealized image? In fact, the ideology hidden in these
advertisements, which give beauty a great value has an impact on women leading
them to chase beauty to gain power. Consequently, according to a recent report,
supply and demand of cosmetics increased over 11% during 2017 (“Saudi Arabia
Cosmetics Market, By Type, By Point”, 2017). Another report by Mordor
intelligence stated that in 2014, the average Saudi woman spent more than USD
3800 on beauty products (“Cosmetics Products Market”, 2017). In figure 2, the
statistic showed that the sales value of the cosmetics in Saudi Arabia for 2015
worth 5.3 billion U.S. dollars (Statista, 2017). Thus, drugstores expanded
their store and sell makeup, also online cosmetics stores appeared such as
Boutiqaat Online Store. These high demands could not be covered by cosmetics
companies; as a result, cosmetics fake markets emerged. The Ministry of
Commerce and Industry (MCI) in Saudi Arabia by their inspection groups found
tens of shops and warehouses full of fake beauty products (Rasooldeen, 2015).
Thus, Saudi officials imposed penalties of five years of jail or fines up to
five million SR on stores of fake beauty products to prevent such trade
(Anti-Commercial Fraud Regulations). To sum up, this analysis showed how
ideologies hidden in discourse could have a serious effect on communities and
might lead to corruption and illegal practices. Critical discourse analysis
paves the way for individual to change any destructive ideology.

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        To illustrate,
Fairclough claimed that any discourse could be explained at different
perspectives of “social organization”, i.e. by concentrating on the discourse
as “situational, institutional or social practice” (2015, p.173). By analyzing
these two texts in situational terms, they were representing a recommendation
that occur between any friends. Whereas in institutional or social terms, the
discourse was highlighting an old idea which emphasis the importance of women’s
image. I called it old, because this idea rooted in the past and cast a shadow
over the present situation causing many ideological struggles. The attention
that Saudi women dedicate for beauty is not something recent. History goes back
to the poems composed in complimenting women’s beauty, and that such women can
stole the hearts of men aiming to gain power. This idea is profound, that it
passed on from one generation to another. So, most people in the society absorb
this idea, and even the ones that were not holding this ideology were under the
pressure of the dominant group who emphasize image, as Social Impact Theory
demonstrate.  Recently, Saudi women is
educated and obtained some of their rights, but this idea is still existing.
This is due to the fact that women are still feeling inferior and men is the
superior; thus, women employed beauty to reach higher status (“Saudi Arabia
Cosmetics Products Market, by products”, 2017).

         To go deeper,
I analyzed the stage of explanation which tackled the hidden ideologies, social
practice and social struggles in these texts which shaped the followers’
beliefs. According to Fairclough, “power relationships determine discourse,
these relationships are themselves the outcome of struggles, and established
(and ideally naturalized) by those with power” (Fairclough, 2015, p.173). So,
the advertiser is more powerful than the follower, due to the social impact
that the advertiser had; accordingly, this relationship produced these types of
texts. Meanwhile, these texts per se is a result of ideology that had been
rooted in the society which highly emphasized women’s image. In other words,
the advertisers got advantage of this ideology and naturalized applying
cosmetics to the extent that it become a common sense for women.

‘A’ expressed her superiority and power by using terms as
SPF 25 instead of sunblock. The message encoded in this term was to convince
women that the product was new and made by experts and professionals. In
addition, by reading the advertisements in Arabic it was noticeable that both
advertisers were code-switching e.g., ?????
? ????? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ???  , this strategy was employed to show that she
is sophisticated and educated, in order to exercise power over the followers.
The last technique used by ‘A’ is the employment of celebrities’ names to
attract women e.g. Jessica Alba, Jennifer Lopez and Aishwarya. This strategy is
common in advertisements to sell products, because celebrities represent the
ideal image that women dream to reach, and their styles and makeup are
imitated. The analysis of this level illustrated the influence of these
advertisers over their followers as a supporting evidence of the Social Impact
Theory (Latane, 1981). Individuals that have dominance are causing social
impact because they can convince people to change their perceptions, emotions,
beliefs and behaviors (Latane ,1981, p. 343). This was exactly what happened in
Snapchat cosmetics advertisements. Cosmetics companies took advantage of the
strength of these influencers and offered them money to persuade women of the
credibility of the product by using an immediate channel which is Snapchat where
they can chat and answer the followers’ questions. Although influencers are the
minority and followers are the majority, the strength of these influencers
defeat the number of people as discussed in the literature review. Their
followers were influenced with such advertisements and the recommended products
are often sold out. To sum up, this analysis was an eye-opening of the relation
between participants in this discourse, where participants themselves were not
aware of in some occasions.