Three Schools Of Thought Of Classical Management Essay

Classical Management Theory is a “ Body ofA managementA thought based on the belief thatA employeesA have onlyA economicalA and physicalA demands, and that societal demands and need forA job-satisfactionA either do n’t be or are unimportant. Consequently, this schoolA advocatesA highA specialisation of labour, centralizedA determination devising, andA net income maximization. ” ( ) To hold originated at the terminal of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, the Classical Management Theory dominated direction thought in the 1920s and 1930s by underscoring on the efficiency of the work procedure.

Classical Management Theory has three schools of idea Scientific Management, which identifies the best manner to make a line of work ; “ Bureaucratic Management, which focuses on regulations and process, hierarchy and clear division of labor ; and Administrative Management, which emphasises the flow of information within the administration. ” ( ) The purpose of this essay is to discourse the three schools of idea of Classical Management Theory and to happen out that whether they have truly become out-of-date and are of small relevancy to work and administration in today ‘s universe.

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Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor is known as the father of Scientific Management. Taylor ‘s attack was to increase organizational productivity by increasing the efficiency of the production procedure through underscoring on the empirical research. Particularly in the United States where labor, particularly the skilled labor was short in supply at the start of the 20th century and the lone manner of increasing productiveness was by raising the efficiency of the workers.

Scientific Management states that the line of work should be designed in such a manner that every worker has a well-controlled and well-stipulated undertaking, and specific methods and processs are purely followed for each occupation. ( ; Cole, 2004 ) Taylor ‘s direction theory is founded upon a cardinal belief that directors non merely are intellectually better than an mean employee, but they have a positive responsibility every bit good to supervise staff and to organize their work activities. Therefore, his theory was merely used on low-level repetitive and modus operandi undertakings which could be easy managed at supervisory degree.

Taylor developed four rules for his theory of Scientific Management. First rule is to scientifically develop best methodological analysis to execute each undertaking. Second rule is that directors should do certain that the best individual is picked to execute the undertaking and to guarantee that he/she gets the best preparation.

Third rule is that directors are responsible for guaranting that the best individual selected for the occupation does it by using the best methodological analysis. Last rule Taylor developed was that entire duty for the work method should be removed from the worker and should be passed on to the direction, and the employee is merely responsible for the existent work public presentation. ( Cole, 2004 ; Stoner et Al, 1996 )

On production-line clip surveies Taylor has based his direction system. Taylor contrived the best and quickest methods of executing each constituent by interrupting down each occupation into its constituents and using clip survey as his base. He besides tried to carry employers to pay a higher rate to more productive workers. In the early parts of 20th century Scientific Management Theory became really popular as its application was shown to take betterments in productiveness and efficiency.

Bureaucratic Management

Max Weber is known as the male parent of Modern Sociology. He had foremost used the term ‘bureaucracy ‘ to depict an organizational signifier which in his position was superior to others. He viewed an ideal administration to be bureaucratic whose divisions of labor were clearly expressed and whose aims and activities were rationally thought. He believed that public presentation rating should wholly be made on the footing of virtue and that proficient competency should be emphasized on.

The cardinal elements of a bureaucratism are defined by Weber as: A clear concatenation of bid within a chiseled hierarchy where the top station holders have the authorization and the right to command the lower station holders ; Specialisation of accomplishments and division of labor, where every employee will hold the authorization and indispensable expertness to complete a peculiar undertaking ; In authorship, accurate and complete regulations and ordinances, to command and regulate all determinations, activities and state of affairss ; Impersonal relationships between employees and directors, with clear responsibilities of forces and statements of the rights ; And all the determinations sing choice, enlisting and publicity will be made on the footing of proficient competency. The model Weber provided for his theory of Bureaucratic Management advanced the formation of many immense corporations such as Ford. ( ; Stoner et Al, 1996 ; Cole, 2004 )

Administrative Management

Henri Fayol a Gallic industrialist was one of the most influential direction minds who developed one of the Classical Management Theory known as ‘Administrative Management ‘ . Scientific Management theory was concerned with increasing the productivity of the store floor while Fayol ‘s theory grew out of the demand to happen guidelines to pull off complex administrations like mills. An early attempt pioneered by Fayol was to place the accomplishments and rules that underlie effectual direction. Harmonizing to Cole ( 2004 ) , Fayol believed that sound direction falls into certain forms which one time identified can be analysed, so he focused on direction of concern operations, which he felt had been the most ignored. He developed 14 general rules of direction based on his direction experience. It was by and large believed that troughs are born non made, before Fayol. He insisted that direction was a accomplishment like other accomplishments which could be taught and learned one time the rules underlying it were understood.

The thoughts Classical Theorists have presented still have many applications in the direction of today ‘s administrations but with some alterations. Directors of today are confronting many internal challenges which are similar to the 1s faced by the directors during earlier periods. Like Taylor ‘s concern for addition productiveness of workers is still shared by directors. The Scientific Management theory is still relevant, even today but it is non every bit popular as it was in the yesteryear.

The occupation design it presented is still widely used in industries today and has made most of the industrial work repetitive, boring, humble and cheerless, and can be noted for illustration in fast-food eating houses like KFC and McDonald and in assembly lines of car makers. McDonald ‘s divides its operation into a figure of undertakings such as runing a deep frier or cookery operation, oversing and assign people to execute the undertakings. The modern mass car assembly lines pour out finished wares faster than Taylor could hold of all time thought off or imagined. In add-on to this, the efficiency techniques of Scientific Management Ate used in the preparation of Surgeons.

Today ‘s ground forcess besides employ Scientific Management. Of the chief points listed – choice workers with appropriate accomplishments for each occupation, a standard method to execute each undertaking, developing for standard undertaking, extinguishing breaks and be aftering work, and pay inducement for increasing end product – all but pay inducements are used by modern military for increased end product. Wage inducements normally appear in the signifier of skill fillips in ground forcess. Furthermore, industrial applied scientists of today are besides taught Scientific Management methods which include job-tasks analysis, clip and gesture surveies and elaborate production planning sing the field of operation research and direction. ( Backer, 1998 )

In United States Bureaucratic Management is still used by service-based administrations like libraries. Libraries of Wichita State University are one concrete illustration where Weber ‘s Bureaucratic Management thoughts are still applied. Postal service in United States is besides still utilizing bureaucratism. ( )

Piece rate systems and mass production line are used in the fabrication and garment industries in Mauritius. Sea-food hub is another industry where the Classical Management Theories are still applied, more specifically at Tuna Processing works in Mauritius. ( )

But since the outgrowth and preparation of the Classical Management Theories in the 19th century the economic landscape has quickly changed. Businesss of today do non be in a vacuity. They have become unfastened systems with dynamic and changeless interaction with the environment. Business environment of today is extremely competitory and planetary, and directors of today are progressively going aware of the concern environment and its effects.

There are two types of concern environment known as the internal and the external environment. Factors that can be comparatively controlled by the administration relates to the internal environment. These factors are the employees, proprietors, clients, providers, force per unit area groups and governments. The external environment constitutes of Political, Economical, Social and Technological ( PEST ) factors that can non be controlled by the administration.

Business environment of today is characterised with uncertainness, alterations and invention. At the same clip concern about the natural environment has besides emerged worldwide. Current natural concerns are climate alterations, pollution, ozone depletion and other planetary issues like population and nutrient security. It is going more ambitious because of the disturbance in the fiscal sector and planetary economic lag. Businesss must accommodate to the environment at all cost or dice. As McDonald ‘s have concluded directors of today have to be concerned non merely with the scientific facts but with the environment and the public perceptual experience.


Administrations today are largely influenced by the external environment ( uninterrupted engineering alteration, globalization, fierce market portion competition, hiring and retaining front line workers and executives ) that frequently fluctuate with clip. Yet Classical Management Theories merely portrays the image of an administration that is non shaped by the external influences. In today ‘s universe of Classical Management Theories are bit by bit fading and the chief ground behind this is that people and their demands are considered as secondary to the demands of an administration by Classical theoreticians.

Nowadays, Human Resource Management has besides really earnestly challenged the scientific attack. Furthermore, in administrations the Bureaucratic Management is quickly giving manner to the Matrix construction. However, Classical Management Theories are still of import because they had introduced the constructs of direction for rational analysis and provided thoughts which were further developed by the subsequent direction schools of idea.


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