Throughout how important vaccines are (Murnaghan “Animal Testing

Throughout the history of biomedical research, animals have been
used continuously as a means of conducting experiments for the sole purpose of
understanding pathology, pharmacology, physiology, and anatomy. To this day,
animal testing is a controversial topic as many people are against it and
others understand the reason why animal testing is done. Although I can
understand why many people justify the reason why animals are used for
biomedical research and harmed, I am completely against animal testing as I
feel that it is unnecessary.

The first dated animal testing documented transpired in 300-200
BC. Ancient civilizations used animals to test out medical procedures. The next
dated event occurred in the year 1242 when Ibn al- Nafis, an Arab physician,
used animals to philosophize blood circulation and study how the human blood
circulatory system works. Scientific theories that proved to be advancements in
science occurred in the 1700s. Animals were of course used to prove this and the
experiments led to historic discoveries and information like how respiration
works as combustion and electricity. A well known testing occurred in the late
nineteenth century. Louis Pasteur, a French biologist, dispensed anthrax (a
serious illness caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis) to sheep as a means
to demonstrate how important vaccines are (Murnaghan “Animal Testing
Timeline”). A huge breakthrough occurred in 1922 when insulin was taken from
dogs to experiment on diabetes. It began to become a problem in the late 1800s.
People began to take a stand against animal testing and later the Cruelty to
Animals Act was passed in 1876. For years after that, scientists as well as
doctors further pursued the use of animals in order to make discoveries and
such. Animals were used to help cure tuberculosis, vaccinate against the polio
vaccine, study of AIDS, and the treatment of depression and diabetes.

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My outlook on the whole thought and process on animal testing is
that it should not be allowed. The main reason as to why I am against it is
because it is simply inhumane. Animals that are used in experiments are
deprived from food and water, force fed, inflicted pain, wounds, and burns,
forced inhalation, and subjected to prolonged periods of physical restraint (2017). Some
animals are incapacitated and forced to keep their eyelids open by clips for
multiple days. Scientists seem to think that animals are somewhat similar to
human beings, but in reality, animals are poor test subjects. As Paul Furlong,
a Professor of Clinical Neuroimaging at Aston University stated, “It’s very
hard to create an animal model that even equates closely to what we’re trying
to achieve in the human.” (2013). Another reason as to why I am against animal
testing is because they do not predict reliable and effective results in human
beings so it is safe to say that animals are sometimes tortured and
experimented on for no authentic reason. Did you know that 94% of drugs that
were successful in animal tests are not in human clinical trials? (2013). Another
reason why I am against animal testing is because if humans are refrained from
being experimented on, then what makes it okay for animals, who have no say in
it, to be used for such experiments? It is highly unfair how animals who have
no control over what happens to them and who have no moral judgement and
cognitive ability as do humans to be used in such a manner in which they simply
have no control over. I am also against animal testing because there has been
new discoveries and alternative testing methods that do not involve the use of
animals, yet animals are still being used. It has been proven that vitro
testing, the study of cell cultures, is way more effective that animal testing
because unlike by torturing animal, human cells are actually used.

A vast amount of people believe that animal
testing isn’t bad and that it is actually needed and useful in order to save
lives by finding cures and treatments. There are cases that lead some people to
believe that animal research has contributed to major advances in medical history.
A reason why people are for animal testing is because they believe that animals
and humans are similar in some ways. It is thought out that animals and humans
are biologically similar as both have the same set of organs and descend from
common ancestors. According to the California Biomedical Research Association,
mice share more than 98% of DNA with humans and chimpanzees share more than 99%
(2014). People who support animal testing claim that it can actually benefit
the animal. How you may ask? Well, according to scientists, animal research has
helped develop vaccines for animals to fight off diseases. Animal research has
also been a contribution in saving endangered and extinct species. Majority of
the vaccines used on humans are also used to help treat animals. People also
support animal testing because they know that animal research and testing is
regulated, as there are laws that protect animals from mishandling. In order to
use animals for research or to be tested on, they must first be approved by
IACUC, an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. With that in mind,
people in favor of animal testing feel that because animals first have to be
approved to be tested on, it is not that severe and that animals will not be
substandarly treated. Some people also support animal testing to be done
because several biomedical and health organizations, as well as a good amount
of biologists, support animal testing. The Pew Research Center discovered that
in a poll of 3,748, 89% of scientists favored the use of animals for scientific
research (Funk & Rainie 2015). Some people claim that it is okay to use
animals for research because we consume more everyday than the amount used for

My response to people actually believing that
it is okay to mistreat animals in order to help human beings out is that the
thought itself is unbelievable. It is safe to say that billions and millions of
people agree with me, as there has been an abundant amount of protests against
the use of animals for testing and experimenting purposes. I am glad that there
are laws as well as organizations that protect animals and their rights. It is
evented that Jeremy Bentham, an English philosopher, was one of the first to
speak out on animal cruelty. In the year 1835, the Cruelty to Animals Act was
created as a means to protect all animals from endangerment. In 1865, Henry
Bergh, a diplomat and activist for animal and human rights, created The
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or as people refer to
it by, ASPCA. In 1925, the Animals Protection Act was created to protect all
animals. An important legislation was that created in 1966 and referred to as
The Animal Welfare Act. It was created to regulate the handling and
transportation of animals used for testing. In 1985, The Improved Standards for
Laboratory Animals Act was put into place. This Act was highly needed and
important because it granted regulations for lab animals such as scientists
providing an adequate amount of living space and making sure that scientists
give in to the basic needs of animals such as being taken for walks. I would
say that the most heard of and influential organization is PETA, People for the
Ethical Treatment of Animals. It began in 1980 and to this day is the largest
animal rights organization in the world. There are many other organizations and
protests going on right now to support animal rights. There is even an ACT
right now that is in the making of where the use of animals in testing
cosmetics can or will be banned. If it goes through, I strongly believe that
HCA, or the Humane Cosmetics Act, will be successful.

Millions of innocent animals are used and
mistreated annually for research and testing. Every single day animals are
fighting for their life as they are tortured excessively, even right this
second as we speak. The abuse that animals have to go through daily is
infuriating and unnecessary. Animal testing is not only unnecessary and cruel,
but it also only wastes resources and lives. It is even proven that majority of
the drugs that pass in animals ends up failing in humans. Some experiments and
research are not even as important as to make innocent animals’ pay for
something that they simply do not have to. It is obvious to conclude that
animals should not be abused and should be seen as what they are, animals, and
not just an experiment.