Tottenham said to have similar aspects to earlier

Tottenham was reported to have the first incident of rioting and looting. The youth were accused of taking advantage of the situation when they discovered that there was only a small number of police, who were not be present at all the areas where the riot broke out. (Euronews 2011)As the news of the riot in Tottenham spread via social network, other areas in London were affected by violence and looting. The other areas included Greater Manchester (The Guardian 2011)The riots resulted in injuries to dozens of civilians as well as police officers who wereat the scenes. There was a total of five deaths. (The British Journal of Criminology 2015)The rebellion occurred over a period of four nights, which started in London before spreading to other cities, including Salford.The 2011 riots that had occurred, were said to be the biggest civil disorder in Britain in more than a decade. In the House of Commons meeting that had taken place after the riot, the emotion that was portrayed was anger. The majority of the members demanded for the rioters to be severely punished for their actions. (Scott 2011)The riot in 2011 was the most recent in a long history of riots and is said to have similar aspects to earlier riots, such as the riot in Moss side in 1981 and Broadwater in the 1980s.Scott (2011) explained how existing psychological theories and research can be used to understand why riots occur. Having an understanding of the factors that are involved can help the government. Therefore, police will have knowledge on how to control a riot and how to prevent one in the future. .Scott (2011) argued that there is often a triggering event that occurs before a riot breaks out.The community labelled this as hate crime and accused the police of being racist, which caused a riot to break out. The riot in 2011 was said to have been triggered by the death of Mark Duggan; a coloured man who was the father of four. The news of his death spread to all members of the community and they were made aware of the fact that he was shot down by the police.  (Scott 2011)The case has said to have ignitedthe feeling of anger from the community. The treatment of the police on coloured people was said to have been a key factor in the communities resentment towards them..(Riddell 2011)In August 2011, the relatives of Mark Duggan held a protest to demand justice for his death. (BBC 2011). The protest began peacefully, but later became violent as the protesters were not satisfied with the police’s explanation.Other examples of riots occurring because of a triggering event include the Broadwater Farm riot in 1985 and the Brixton riot in 1985. In 1985, police raided the home of an African-Carribean women called Cynthia Jarrett. She collapsed and was pronounced dead at the hospital. (4WardEver Campaign 2008)The riot had started when a group of young men held a protest outside the police station, demanding an explanation for the death of Cynthia Jarrett. One in ten of the coloured youths were taken in by the police for questioning. (4WardEver Campaign 2008)A coloured women, called Cherry Groce was shot by the police during a search. Due to this, she became paralysed from the waist down. The response of this was colored people looting and rioting.  The community was angry as the police officer who was responsible for this incident was found not guilty. (Maher 2012)73% of the rioters were stopped and searched in 2010. (The Guardian 2011) one rioter stated “Young black boys are always at the brunt.” (The Guardian 2011)The Guardian found that the police treated the rioters in a degrading way when strip-searching and stopping them. (The Guardian 2011) they also found that discontentment with the police was one of the riots key causes.Research shows that prior to the shooting of Mark Duggan, there were feelings of anger towards the police. However, it can be argued that Scott’s (2011) explanation on triggering events is not sufficient enough to explain the magnitude of the riot and it ignores other social conditions such as poverty and unemployment.The examples given supports Scott’s (2011) argument and provides evidence for his psychological explanation on why the England 2011 riot occurred. The evidence illustrates that riots are the communities response to an racial incident that was carried out by police. One of the questions that was asked after the riot had ended was ‘Did youth unemployment cause the England riots?’ (Simpskin 2012)Another psychological explanation is unemployment. An unemployed youth, who feels detached from society, is ready to riot. Critics argue that unemployment is the underlying cause of the 2011 riot rather than the supposed trigger event (Simpskin 2012)MP Dianne Abbott argued that the young people that were involved in the riot in 2011 felt that they had no place in society. She argued that youth unemployment and the low number of opportunities for young people in deprived areas could be cause of the riot.The riot is said to have simply been an explosion of anger among bored teens who lack motivation and a job. (GraduateFog 2018)The police and court’s arrest records show that the majority of the rioters were young, poor and unemployed. 17% (28% in London) of the rioters were students (Home office 2011), who were frustrated of not being able to get a job.The statistics support the theory that there is a link between unemployed people and riots.They argues that poorer parents working long hours can lead to psychological problems such as lack of family. (Sutton and Douglas 2013)Individuals who have childhoods that involve self-discipline may not respond to their poverty status compared to individuals who have not been so fortunate to have a functional family.Sutton and Douglas (2013) argued that the relationship between an individual’s poverty an the likelihood that they would participate in riots is dependent on their family upbringing. The effect of an individual’s poverty on their rioting behavior, is moderated by their upbringing.  Sutton and Douglas (2013) argue that poverty and being from a dysfunctional family increases the chances of rioting.However poverty is a bigger factor than a dysfunctional family. (Sutton and Douglas 2013)Mediation (relationship between two variables is explained by the third) and Moderation (happens when a relationship between two variables is dependent on  a third variable) can happen at the same time and may help understand the causes for the 2011 England riot. (Sutton and Douglas 2013)As poverty increases, so does the extent of family dysfunction, which in turn causes rioting.An article by social forces examined the residential addresses of 1.620 rioters, who were arrested in the 2011 England riots. (Biggs 2015). According to a number of scholars and politicians, rioters were motivated by the rising inequality, as they exploited an opportunity to steal goods.Biggs (2015) found that in London, the rioters tended to come from the poorest of neighborhoods, which included unemployment and overcrowded housing. •Sutton and Douglas (2013) explained that in social psychology, there is typically more than one cause that contributes to an incident.•The England 2011 riot might be the product of the frustration among individuals in poverty and unemployment as Briggs (2015) found that poverty is almost always linked to unemployment. •In some cases, multiple causes of an individuals behavior can affect them at the same time,  combining to be a powerful force that shapes the way they act.Causes can combine in many ways and sometimes interact with one another”The effect of one cause, like poverty, on an outcome such as rioting may depend on the presence, or absence or extent of another cause, such as a dysfunctional upbringing.” (Sutton and Douglas 2013 pg. 4)There are many different causes that could have contributed to the riot in England 2011.He argues that “Men are quick to aspire beyond their social means and quick to anger when those means prove inadequate, but slow to accept their limitations” (Gurr 1970 pg 58). When men fail to reach their aspirations, they become frustrated, which leads to aggression.Gurr (1970) defines relative deprivations as the tension between an individuals state and what they believe they can achieve. People join protests because they feel deprived, relative to the other people in the group. This hypothesis, which was brought forward by Dollard et al (1939) is based on the catharsis explanation. Freud believed that the only way to reduce and release aggression was engaging in an activity. Dollard (1939) stated that when an individual experiences frustration, it leads to aggression. He argues that the aggression is a cathartic release on the feeling of frustration. Alternatively, Berkowitz (1969) argues that frustration does not always lead to aggression. If certain cues, such as weapons are available, aggression will be triggered.The first defense mechanism that can be used is sublimation, which is when individuals use their aggression in activities such as sport. The second mechanism is displacement, which is when an individual directs their aggression onto something or someone else.Dollard’s (1939) psychodynamic theory proposes that all individuals have ego defense mechanisms to help protect themselves. The London school of economics and the Guardian conducted a study on 270 rioters. They found through interviews that the riots were triggered by “widespread anger and frustration at the way police engage with communities’ (Lewis et al 2011, p.1)  the rioters mentioned the intense frustration the the way the members of the community are treated by the police. Mostly coloured people are subjected to stop and search and this was identified as a key factor of riots. (Riddell 2011)Alex Singleton, who is a university lecturer, analysed the rioters addresses by overlapping them with the poverty indicators map, which breaks down the United Kingdom into smaller, geographical areas.He found that the majority of the rioters were from poor neighborhoods, with 41% living in the top 10%  of the most deprived areas in the United Kingdom. (The Guardian 2011)66% of neighborhoods where the rioters lived had gotten poorer between 2007 and 2010 (The Guardian 2011)Singletons findings are backed up with research that was published by the institute of public policy research. The institute studies the relationship between poverty and deprivation and the areas where looting and violence took place.Researchers found that child poverty and youth unemployment levels were significantly higher in almost all the worst- affected areas. (The Guardian 2011)BBC News. (2018). Timeline: Mark Duggan’s shooting. online Available at: Accessed 11 Jan. 2018.BBC News. 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(2011). The psychology behind riots and looting: The August 2011 English Riots. online Available at: 3 Jan. 2018.Prasad, R. (2018). Reading the Riots: ‘Humiliating’ stop and search a key factor in anger towards police. online the Guardian. Available at: Accessed 11 Jan. 2018. Simpkin, S. and Sapsed, E. (2012). I predict a riot – quantifying the characteristics of areas that led to rioting in England in August 2011. Safer Communities, 11(2), pp.78-89.Singer, M. (1992). The application of relative deprivation theory to justice perception of preferential selection. Current Psychology, 11(2), pp.128-144.Smith, H. and Pettigrew, T. (2015). Advances in Relative Deprivation Theory and Research. Social Justice Research, 28(1), pp.1-6.Sutton, R. and Douglas, K. (2013). Social psychology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Taylor, M., Rogers, S. and Lewis, P. (2018). England rioters: young, poor and unemployed. online the Guardian. 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