Tumor infection by certain gram-negative bacteria including


 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6 producing cells.    Tumor necrosis factor can also be made in the laboratory. It may boost a person’s immune response, and also may cause necrosis (cell death) of some types of tumor cells. Tumor necrosis factor is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of cytokine. Also called TNF.


The Start Codon of this protein is 176 (ATG) and the Stop Codon of the protein is 875 (TGA)

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Tumor Necrosis Factor is 233 amino acids long



Tumor Necrosis Factor protein

7. MSTE drawing


Tumor Necrosis Factor is associates with the disease, Bacterial Toxic shock. This disease occurs within a few hours after infection by certain gram-negative bacteria including E. coli, P, aeruginosa and N. meningitides. The symptoms associated with this disease are decrease in blood pressure, fever, diarrhea and blood clotting in various organs. These are all results of an overproduction of TNF. Monoclonal antibodies to TNF may provide an effective treatment to this disease by binding the free TNF.

Toxic Shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by a bacterial infection. It is caused when the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus gets into the bloodstream and produces toxins. Even though Toxic Shock syndrome is linked to superabsorbent tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can also affect men, children, and people of all ages. 

Some symptoms of Toxic Shock syndrome can vary from person to person. In most cases, symptoms appear suddenly. Common signs of this condition include: Sudden fever, low blood pressure, headache, muscle aches, confusion, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, rash, redness of eyes, mouth and throat and seizures.

Usually when infection occurs, it is because bacteria enters your body through an opening in your skin, such as a cut, sore, or other wound. Experts are not sure why tampon use sometimes leads to Bacterial Toxic Shock syndrome. Some people believe that a tampon left in place for a long period of time attracts bacteria. Another possibility is that tampon fibers scratch the vagina, creating an opening for bacteria to enter your bloodstream.

Toxic shock syndrome is a medical emergency. Some people with the condition have to stay in the intense care unit for several days so that medical staff can closely monitor them. Your doctor will most likely recommend an intravenous (IV) antibiotic to help you fight the bacterial infection in your body. This will require the placement of a special IV line called a peripherally inserted intravenous catheter, or PICC line. You will receive 6–8 weeks of antibiotics at home. If this is the case, an infectious disease doctor will closely monitor you. 

Sometimes, depending on the underlying cause, other treatment methods for Toxic Shock syndrome are necessary. For example, a doctor may need to remove a foreign object from your body if it has triggered a Toxic Shock. These foreign objects can include a vaginal sponge or tampon. If an open wound or surgical wound caused your toxic shock syndrome, the doctor will drain pus or blood form the   wound to help clear up an infection.

Other possible treatments that may be necessary include medication to stabilize blood pressure, IV fluids to fight Dehydration and gamma globulin injections to suppress inflammation and boost your body’s immune system


The following is current research from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7339069 on TNF. Tumor Necrosis factor (TNF) is an active element of serum taken from Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum) infected mice dealt with with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To discover the production site of TNF, we tried to block TNF manufacturing by the use of the following reagents; carrageenan, hydrocortisone, and trypan blue. Following the injection of a massive dose of carrageenan, administered before C. parvum treatment, TNF production became completely blocked. However, when administered after C. parvum treatment but prior to LPS injection, no blockage became found. Injecting hydrocortisone before the LPS injection also blocked TNF launch. , this treatment, while administered before the injection of C. parvum, had no observable impact on TNF manufacturing. A large dose of trypan blue, administered before the LPS injection, additionally blocked the discharge of TNF. A low dose of trypan blue ended in only partial blockage of TNF production. A large dose of trypan blue, administered prior to C. parvum treatment, also showed partial blockage of TNF production. Macrophage-enriched peritoneal exudate cells (p.c), taken from mice infected with C. parvum, launched TNF into the supernatant after stimulation with LPS. these effects strongly propose that the production site of TNF is located inside the activated macrophage and deeply associated with lysosome.