Chapter 6: The Duel for North America TERMS AND NAMES: 1. Samuel de Champlain: an intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership fairly earned him the title, “Father of New France”; started establishment of Quebec in 1608 on St. Lawrence River; allied with Huron Indians and fought Iroquois for them 2.
William Pitt: British general; also known as the “Great Commoner” and “Organizer of Victory”; switched British focus in war from West Indies to Quebec-Montreal area; led 1758 expedition against Louisbourg (first significant British victory); appointed James Wolfe for Quebec expedition, 1759; led to fall of Montreal in 1760 (no more French left in Canada 3. Antoine Cadillac: Frenchman who founded Detroit, “the City of Straits, “ on 1702 to thwart the English 4.
Robert de La Salle: sailed down Mississippi River in 1682 to the Gulf to check Spanish penetration; named great interior basin “Louisiana” in honor King Louis XIV; murdered when he returned to Gulf in 1687; allowed French to plant posts in Mississippi and Louisiana (New Orleans, 1718) to block Spain on Gulf of Mexico; allowed French to use Illinois for grain (to ship to France) 5. James Wolfe: 32 year-old officer since age 14; appointed by William Pitt to lead 1759 British expedition into Quebec where he defeated the French under Marquis de Montcalm 6.
Edward Braddock: 60 year-old officer experienced in European warfare was sent to Virginia with a large detachment of British regulars; with two thousand men in 1755 set off to capture Fort Duquesne; his force consisted of “buckskins”, ill-disciplined colonial militiamen who fought guerilla warfare; moved slowly, attacked by French-Indian force; it collapsed; this encouraged Indians who then moved from Pennsylvania to North Carolina 7.
Pontiac: Ottawa chief who led several tribes (aided by a handful of French traders) in 1763 in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio Country; besieged Detroit in 1763 and eventually overran all but three British posts west of the Appalachians; British retaliated by sending blankets infected with smallpox to the tribe, which crushed the uprising and brought an uneasy truce; led to Proclamation of 1763 8. Louis XIV: enthroned as a five year-old boy. He resigned for no less than 72 years (1643-1715), surrounded by a glittering court and scheming ministers and mistresses; took deep interest in overseas colonies. . Marquis de Montcalm: leader of French in Quebec who was defeated by English James Wolfe in 1759 10. Benjamin Franklin: published in his Pennsylvania Gazette the most famous cartoon of the colonial era (“Join or Die”); wise and witty counselor was the leading spirit of the Albany Congress. 11. George Washington:21 year-old surveyor and fellow Virginian who was sent to the Ohio Country as a lieutenant colonel in command of about 150 Virginians militiamen. 12. Huguenots: French Protestants; thousands murdered on St. Bartholomew’s Day in 1572; granted limited toleration in 1598 Edict of Nantes; denied refuge in New France 13.
Seven Years War (French and Indian War): French and British war over Ohio Valley (west land for British, link to Mississippi Valley holdings for French); started by George Washington in Ohio Valley in 1754; war fought in America, Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and the ocean; Britain and Prussia v. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia 14. Acadians: French settlers in Nova Scotia who were uprooted by the British (who had won the land and feared rebellion) in 1755; forced as far as Louisiana, where their 1 million descendants are called “Cajuns” 15.
War of Spanish Succession: 1702-1713; known as Queen Anne’s War in America; one of the first contests among European powers for North America; pitted British colonists against the French coureurs de bois, with both sides recruiting Indians; France and Spain eventually allied 16. Albany Congress: British-summoned inter-colonial congress to New York in 1754 during the Seven Years War; summoned to win Iroquois support 17. Iroquois: Native American tribe that the French fought against alongside the Huron Indians; hampered French penetration of the Ohio Valley and allied themselves with the British during the Seven Years War 18.
New France: (Canada)French colonies in New World; 1608 started establishment in Quebec on St. Lawrence River; completely controlled by the King; population was 60,000, mostly Catholic; motivation was not economic (more interested in Caribbean islands) nor religious (Huguenots denied religious refuge there) 19. Proclamation of 1763: issued by British government after Seven Years War; prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians (to provide security from Indians); outraged colonists, who ignored it anyways 20.
Cajuns: name of the descendants (in Louisiana) of French Acadians forced out of Nova Scotia by the British and number nearly a million 21. Edict of Nantes: 1598, gave limited toleration to French Protestants; allowed France to become united and start turning its eyes outward (towards the New World) 22. Coureurs de bois: French fur-trappers who ranged over the woods and waterways of North America in pursuit of beavers; (“runners of the woods”) were also runners of risks, two-fisted drinkers, free spenders, free livers, and lovers. 23.
Jesuits: French Catholic missionaries who labored zealously to save the Indians for Christ and from the fur-trappers; some suffered tortures at the hands of the Indians; played vital roles as explorers and geographers. 24. Salutary neglect: a generation of peace ensued, during which Britain provided its American colonies with decades of this- fertile soil for the roots if independence. 25. War of Jenkins’s Era: broke out in 1739 between the British and the Spaniards; confined to the Caribbean Sea and to the much-buffeted buffer colony of Georgia; soon merged with the large scale War of Austrian Succession in Europe 26. Louis Voug: 27.
Fort Duquesne: fort commanding the strategic Ohio River; was as the pivotal point where the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers join to form the Ohio-the later site of Pittsburg. 28. Fort Necessity: where the French promptly returned with reinforcements who surrounded Washington in his hastily constructed breastwork. 29. Quebec: a granite sentinel commanding the St. Lawrence River 30. New Orleans: French fortified post in an effort to block Spain on the Gulf of Mexico, most important (1718) 31. Great Lakes: French-trappers and their Indian partners hiked, rode, snowshoed, sailed, and paddled across the huge arc of the Great Lakes 32.
Montreal: Indian flotilla arrived in 1693 with 400 canoes. 33. Hudson Bay: Britain was rewarded with wintry waste; these immense tracts pinched the St. Lawrence River settlement of France, foreshadowing their ultimate doom 34. Newfoundland: Britain was rewarded with this wintry waste; these immense tracts pinched the St. Lawrence River settlement of France, foreshadowing their ultimate doom. 35. Louisiana: French fortified post in an effort to block Spain on the Gulf of Mexico 36. Nova Scotia (Acadia): British scored a signal victory when they temporarily seized the stronghold of Port Royal in Acadia.