Understand theories of human growth and development Describe
theories of human growth and development.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development looks into what
stages we go through in our lifein order for us to develop into the people that
we now are. He looked at how these external factors may affect how our
personalities may develop and shape the person we become in our life. According to Erikson’s theory, individuals
will pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over their entire life
These eight stages are –
Trust vs. Mistrust
happens in the first year or so in a child’s life (like Freud’s oral stage of
psychosexual development). According to Erikson during this stage, a child is
learning about the world they live in, they are learning to build relationships
and how the world works and who they can out there trust within. They start to
develop their sense of security in their primary care givers.
stage of life is a success, the child will feel a sense of hope that they can
trust their caregivers. This is what will give them hope as they start to
approach their second life stage.
If a child
is not fulfilled in the first stage of their life, they will have a difficult
start to their second stage. They may feel a sense of mistrust and as if they
do not have people to rely during their time of need, this could result in
anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world
and people around them.
Autonomy vs shame
occurs when a child is around the age of 1–3 years old they begin to develop
their independence and are able to choose what are who they’d like to play
with. They are also usually beginning to be potty trained at this stage,
because they’re able to understand the process.
stage is successful they child will be confident within their ability and
confident that they can do it, they’ll often say no if they don’t want to do
stage is not carried out correctly they’ll inadequate this may lead them to
have problem with self-identity and self-esteem as they get older and become
Initiative vs Guilt
This period happens
when a child is 3 – 6 years old. During this stage the primary feature involves
the child regularly interacting with other children at school. The main factor
to this stage is play, as it exposes children to the opportunity to explore
their interpersonal skills through initiating activities. Children begin to
plan things to do, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given
this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in
their ability to lead others and make decisions.
stage is carried out correctly this child should feel confident in their
abilities to lead other and make decisions and plan things.
If a child
is punished for their ideas or receives a negative reaction for all of their
ideas they begin to believe these things and won’t feel confident enough to use
their initiative later on in their lives.
Stage 4 Industry
spans from 6 years old all the way up to puberty, during this stage a child is
developing their reading and writing skills and it is that they are encouraged
by their family and the teachers who are teaching tem the skills.
If this is
carried out correctly the child will feel confident and will feel more able to
complete their goals that are set for them.
isn’t done properly the child will feel as if people think they’re inadequate
and may cause them to lack motivation later on in their lives.
Identity and Role confusion
the progression from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are
becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future. The individual
wants to belong to a society and fit in, so they’ll look for a way for them to
slot into society and have their role. During this stage adolescence may struggle
with identity issues and struggling with the changes their body is going
through and trying to get used to these changes. If this stage is unsuccessful they
may have an identity crisis and feel uncomfortable being true to themselves.
Intimacy vs Isolation
people get involved in long term intimate relationships with others that
involve them committing to someone and being involved with someone long term
other than family members. Successful attainment of this stage can result in
happy relationships and a sense of commitment, happiness, and care within a
relationship. Avoiding intimacy can cause this stage in someone life to be
unfulfilled which can cause the person to be depressed and lonely.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
adulthood (ages 40 to 65 years), we establish our careers, settle down within a
relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the
bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our children, being
productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and
organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and
feel unproductive. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of care. During
this stage we have started our careers and have started to begin our own
Integrity vs. Despair
As we grow
older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity and
explore life as a retired person. We may begin to feel quality for not being
productive and feeling like we are too reliant on others. We may begin to look
back on our lives and feeling like we may have not done everything that we
wanted to do within our lives and feeling unfulfilled.
Freud has 5
stages that he uses to demonstrate the phases in life that we go through in
life when we are growing up and developing in to adult life we start to
establish or sense of self and deciding what we want to do and having our own
children to look after for the cycle to begin all over again.
Oral Stage (0-1 year)
In the first
stage of personality development, the libido is centred in a baby’s mouth. This
means that a lot of their stimulates come from their mouth, this goes from
their mother breastfeeding them to them putting toys in their mouths and biting
and chewing is how they discover the world. Freud said oral stimulation could
lead to an oral fixation in later life.
We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters,
finger-chewers, and thumb suckers. Oral
personalities take part in such oral behaviours, particularly when under
stress. This may be because it reminds them of being a child so brings in sense
of comfort to the person.
now becomes focused on the anus, and the child derives great pleasure from
defecating. The child is now fully aware
that they one person and separate from those who they have gained attachments
with around them, for example their mother is a separate person. Freud believed
that any conflicts that may start will begin when a child starts to be potty
trained, this is because they have now started to be taught to have a control
of their toilet habits and when they’re going and where.
harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming a person who hates mess, is
overly tidy, punctual and respectful of authority. They can be stubborn and relentless with saving
their cash and preserving their possessions.
This is because it has been reiterated in their head from a young age by
their parents that this is bad and that everything that they must be clean and
tidy and in the correct place.
Stage (3 to 5 or 6 years)
now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation becomes a new source
of pleasure because of the new sensations and feelings that they have now discovered. These feelings start to make the child feel
jealousy and resentment, this is called Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra
complex in girls.
complex is the concept that a young boy will become jealous of their father and
want to be with his mother and will want to kill his father due to the
resentment that they feel against their father. He may want to get rid of his father
so that they can have their mother all to themselves and won’t have to share
Complex is the same as the Oedipus complex but has the idea that young girls
feel this resentment towards their mother and want to have their father to
themselves without having to share the attention with their mother. But when
the young girl realises that her father has a penis she’ll then begin to resent
him for this and have penis envy.
Stage (5 or 6 to puberty)
stage Freud believes that the libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual
impulses are repressed during the latent stage, and sexual energy can be
sublimated towards school work, hobbies, and friendships. Much of the child’s
energy is channelled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge,
and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.
Stage (puberty to adult)
This is the
last stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory of personality development and begins
in puberty. It is a time of adolescent
sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in
a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20’s. we start to develop our first romantic relationships
and may start to develop sexual relationships.
and Freud’s theories are comparable because they both have the same ideas that
the early stages of our life can shape how we live our life’s and what happens
in our future and the personalities we develop. While he was influenced by
Freud’s ideas, Erikson’s theory differed in a number of important ways. Like
Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages that
most people will experience and if they are unsuccessful it will affect the
things that happen in our life. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages,
Erikson’s theory describes the impact of what we experience in social
situations during our whole lifespan.
Stages of Psychosexual Development
called this the oral stage.
this point in development, a child’s main provider of pleasure is through the
mouth via sucking, eating, and tasting.
with this stage can result in what Freud referred to as an oral fixation which
can lead to nail biting and smoking etc.
Stages of Psychosocial Development
called this the trust versus mistrust stage.
learn to either trust or mistrust their caregivers.
who do not receive adequate and dependable care may develop a sense of mistrust
of others and the world and will struggle to develop relationships because they’re
unable to trust the people around them.
called this the anal stage of development. ?
begin to learn how control their bowel movements and where they should go to
As adults, they might be excessively orderly and
begin to become obsessive with being clean and having things perfect.
called this the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage.
Children begin to learn skills and learn how to do certain things by themselves
eating, toilet training, and talking.
who succeed at this stage develop a sense of independence while those who
struggle will be left doubting themselves and feeling as if they are unable to
complete task by themselves.
Freud referred to this as the phallic stage.
libido’s energy is focused on the genitals and masturbation. Children begin to
identify with their same-sex parent and envy the relationship they have with
the parent of the opposite sex.
experience the Oedipus complex while girls experience the Electra complex.
Erikson’s called this the initiative versus guilt stage.
begin to develop more independence and skills and being able to do things for
who are successful at this stage develop a sense of purpose while those who
struggle are left with feelings of guilt.
referred to this point in psychosexual development as the genital stage.
believes at this stage we begin to explore and develop romantic relationships.
goal of this stage is to develop a sense of balance between all the areas of
life. Those who have successfully completed the earlier stages are now warm,
caring and well-adjusted adults because of the success in the stage.
called this point in psychosocial development the identity versus role
develop a personal identity and sense of self.
explore different roles and develop their own opinions for themselves even if
they go against their family and what has been taught to them.
who struggle to forge a strong identity will remain confused about who they are
and what they want to do with their life because of the things that they should
have worked out during this stage.