Top down attack is what hearers should utilize when they audit internal control over fiscal coverage to place hazards and to choose the controls to prove. Exceed down attack starts from the fiscal statement degree to entity degree, and so goes to important histories, revelations and averments. This attack allows hearers to place the sensible possibility of stuff misstatements to the fiscal statements and related revelations.
Identifying entity-level controls
Entity degree controls are of import in a manner that they affect the hearer ‘s decision about the effectivity of company ‘s internal control over fiscal coverage. Entity degree controls are assorted in nature and preciseness. Some controls have an consequence on the likeliness of observing and forestalling a misstatement on a timely footing, some others monitor the effectivity of other controls, and the others might be designed to forestall or observe misstatements on a timely footing.
The two constituents of entity degree controls are controls related to the control environment and controls over direction override. When hearers evaluate control environment, they should measure if the operating manner is effectual, if proper unity and ethical values are developed, and if the Board of managers or audit commission exercisings oversight decently. Controls over direction override are of import for all companies, particularly for smaller houses because senior direction is extremely involved in executing controls and in period-end fiscal coverage procedure. Period-end fiscal coverage procedure includes come ining dealing sums into the general leger, choosing and using accounting policies, initiating, authorising, entering, and treating journal entries in the general leger, entering accommodations, and fixing fiscal statements and related revelations. To measure these procedures, the hearers should analyze inputs, processs performed, end products used to bring forth fiscal statements, information engineering engagement, engagements of direction, locations involved in procedure, types of adjusting and consolidating entries, and extent of inadvertence of the procedure.
Identifying important histories and revelations and their relevant averments
When hearers are placing important histories and revelations and their relevant averments, they should measure hazard factors every bit good as the likely beginnings of possible misstatements. Relevant averments include being or happening, completeness, rating or allotment, rights and duties, and presentation and revelations, which have a sensible possibility of incorporating stuff misstatements. Hazard factors include size and composing of the history, susceptibleness to misstatement due to mistakes or fraud, volume of activity, complexness, and homogeneousness of the single minutess, nature of the history or revelation, accounting and coverage complexnesss associated with the history or revelation, exposure to losingss in the history, possibility of important contingent liabilities originating from the activities reflected in the history or revelation, being of related party minutess in the history, and alterations from the anterior period in history or revelation features. These hazard factors are the same in the audit of internal control over fiscal coverage and in the audit of the fiscal statements. Since the constituents of a possible important history or revelation might be capable to differing hazards, different controls might be necessary. When a company has a several locations or concern units, the hearer should place histories, revelations and averments based on the amalgamate fiscal statements.
Understanding likely beginnings of misstatement
To understand likely beginnings of misstatement, the hearers should accomplish the aims of understanding the flow of minutess related to the relevant averments, placing which portion of the procedure could include misstatements, placing the controls that direction has implemented to turn to possible misstatements, and placing the controls that are implemented to forestall or observe unauthorised usage of company ‘s assets which could take a material misstatements. These aims will be used as a portion of judgement procedure. The best manner to accomplish these aims is executing walkthroughs. In executing a walkthrough, the hearer follows a dealing from the inception to the procedure until it is reflected in the company ‘s fiscal records. With executing a walkthrough the hearer inquiries the company ‘s forces to derive a sufficient apprehension of the procedure and to place whether the controls are efficaciously designed. It besides allows the hearer to hold a greater apprehension of the company ‘s several minutess of the procedure. Therefore, it is the most effectual manner to accomplish the aims. Furthermore, to understand the likely beginnings of misstatements, the hearer should understand how IT affects the company ‘s flow of minutess.
Choosing controls to prove
When hearers are choosing controls to prove, they should choose the controls which will impact significantly on hearers ‘ decisions about the effectivity of the controls. It will depend on how sufficiently the control addresses the assessed hazard of misstatements to a relevant averment, non depend on how the control is labeled. Besides, a control does non hold to turn to the assessed hazard of misstatement to one relevant averment. It could turn to the assessed hazard to more than one relevant averment, and besides several controls might turn to the assessed hazard to one relevant averment.
Material failing vs. important lack
A stuff failing and a important lack are similar in a manner that they both are lacks in internal control over fiscal coverage. However, a important lack is non every bit terrible as a stuff failing. Therefore, when there is a important lack, it is non reported to foreigners, but it is reported to the board and to the direction to warn that a important lack could take to a material misstatement. Besides, the controls still can be reported as clean and effectual. On the other manus, a stuff failing means there is a sensible possibility that controls will non be able to forestall or observe a material misstatement of the company ‘s fiscal statements.
A list of indexs of stuff failings
There are some indexs of stuff failing. If an uneffective inadvertence is exercised by the audit commission and if there is an designation of fraud, they indicate the stuff failing. Besides, when the antecedently issued fiscal statements which had stuff misstatement have been corrected, and when material misstatements in current period are identified by the hearer, and they would non hold been detected by the company ‘s internal control, it shows that there is a material failing in internal control over fiscal coverage. Last, when the hearer concludes that the lacks prevent prudent functionaries from reasoning they have sensible confidence that minutess are recorded harmonizing to by and large recognized accounting rules, it indicates a material failing.
Communication to the audit commission vs. the hearer ‘s study
Material failings that are identified during the audit should be communicated to direction and the audit commission. Besides, written communicating should be made before the hearers issue hearer ‘s study on internal control over fiscal coverage. In this procedure if the hearers think the company ‘s external fiscal coverage and internal control are uneffective, it should be communicated to the board of managers foremost. In add-on to stuff failings, important lacks should be communicated to the audit commissions and direction every bit good. Hearers are non required to reiterate information that has been already written before, whether those were from hearer, internal hearers, or others within the organisation. Hearers communicate lacks that they are cognizant of, but they are non required to work on procedure to place all control lacks. Besides, hearers do non hold confidence that they have identified all lacks less severe than a material failing. Therefore, they can non compose a study stating that no lacks were noted during the audit. When the hearer becomes cognizant of fraud or illegal Acts of the Apostless, the hearer should find his/her duties.
When hearers issue an hearer ‘s study, some elements should be included. The elements are a rubric including the word, independent, a statement of direction ‘s duty for keeping and measuring the effectivity of internal control, direction ‘s study, hearer ‘s duty of showing an sentiment based on his/her audit, definition of internal control over fiscal coverage, a statement that audit followed the criterions of PCAOB and the demands of those criterions, procedures of an audit, hearer ‘s belief of the audit, built-in restrictions of observing misstatements, the hearer ‘s sentiment, signature of the hearer ‘s house, the metropolis and province of the study, and the day of the month of the audit study.