A theory is a vital basis of every nursing endeavor. It can possibly explain the sense of every nursing action in the field. Without such, the practice of the profession will lack sense and deeper meaning. All throughout the history of nursing, it became a foundation that governs nurses in performing their duties. Like the theory of Nightingale which guided nurses during the Crimean War when Florence, along with other trained nurses took care of the soldiers who were injured by attending to their needs of cleanliness as to prevent infection which was rampant during that period.
This theory had been evident in the day-to-day nursing practice. The most obvious way that nurses perform to apply the said theory is handwashing. It was proven through studies that frequent handwashing greatly helps in the prevention of infection which strengthens the credibility of Nightingale’s theory. In view of this, I can say that nursing theories are not just mere sources of principles behind phenomena in nursing practice but above all, they are fundamental rudiments of uplifting the motivation of nurses to do their functions.
If nurses had a better view of these theories, it would not be hard for them to do a nursing intervention for they know the benefits of such as supported by the concepts and principles embedded in those theories. Image Source: http://www. gardenofpraise. com/ibdnight. htm A theory is nothing without its uses being applied. There are a variety of functions that a theory can provide. Aside from the general knowledge that it offers a systematic explanation about how phenomena are interrelated, it gives more significance in a specific manner particularly in the field of research.
A theory allows researchers to weave together observations and facts into an orderly scheme. It is an efficient mechanism for drawing together amassed facts, sometimes from distinct and isolated investigations. Thru the aid of a theory, findings in a study can be linked into a coherent structure which can make the gathered evidence more credible and thus, more useful. In addition, a theory can guide a researcher’s understanding of not only of the natural phenomena but also the reason behind their occurrence. It can provide a basis for predicting the occurrence of phenomena.
Like in the field of nursing, a theory can define the essence of every nursing action rendered to patient and eventually can predict the outcome that will be produced from the patient e. g. when a nurse shows utmost care to a dying patient wherein he attends to relaxation needs of the patient by giving back rub and other comfort measures together with spiritual care by reading some passages from the Bible that can enlighten the patient’s perception about her present condition and perhaps can prolong his life beyond the due time as a result (mind-body-soul engagement as reflective of Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring).
Other vital functions of a nursing theory based on what I learned and experienced are as follows: • Help nurses to describe, explain, and predict experiences in the tour of duty Image Source: http://www. humandiseases. org/postpartum-depression-treatment. html This can be discussed with the use of Behavioral System Model by Dorothy E. Johnson. With this theoretical model, a nurse can determine a patient’s specific behavior and can explain the rationale behind such behavior. Eventually, he can anticipate what a patient would manifest once he continues to portray the same behavior in the long run.
For an instance, in my own experience in the hospital (Fabella), I encountered a postpartum patient who acted weird. She kept herself isolated and did not talk to other mothers in the area since the time she delivered her baby. She also left her baby in her bed once in a while without notifying the nurses on duty or even the mothers near her just to attend to her bathroom needs. I thought that a mother in normal cognition would not do such thing to her child and so based on my knowledge and further assessment, I identified her to be undergoing a probable postpartum depression.
Knowing the etiology behind her present state, I can predict that it could be worsened if anyone in the health care team would just have a blind eye. So, as to prevent it from becoming pretty bad, I utilized a certain technique which I learned in Psychiatric Nursing. Psychotherapy, also known as “talk therapy” is the method I employed. It involves working and figuring out ways to solve problems and cope with all forms of depression, including postpartum depression. It can be a great intervention that can even generate positive biochemical changes in the brain.
This is particularly important as an alternative to medication treatment which is only the last resort to be considered. Aside from the fact that I was able to manage the patient’s condition after such therapy, I realized then that I actually applied Johnson’s theory which actually helped me unnoticeably in practicing my communication skill as a vital independent nursing function. • Function to guide the nursing process Image Source: http://nursingprocesssteps. com/ This is reflective of the Nursing Process Theory of Ida Jean Orlando.
Her theory emphasizes the necessity to perform the ADPIE which stands for Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation as to address the patient’s needs. • Offer a justification for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of clients, which are essential for effective decision making and interventions Image Source: http://imogene-king. blogspot. com/ Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory as well as the preceding theory above can support this usage.
The nurse gathers data from his patients which are relative to their present health conditions. After data collection then collation, the nurse would identify a nursing diagnosis which will be addressed after setting objectives and goals mutually by both the patient and the nurse. Then decision making of what best nursing interventions can be applied will follow. Thereafter, implementation of those selected interventions to attain those determined goals and objectives beneficial to the patient’s recuperation is the next to consider. Aid to establish standards to measure the quality of nursing care Image Source: http://nursingtheories. info/lydia-eloise-hall-nursing-theory-care-core-cure-model/ This is supported by Lydia Hall’s Theory in Care.
The care aspect of her theory explains the role of nurses, and centered on acting out that upright task of nurturing the patients, meaning the element of this theory is the nurses’ “motherly” care, which may include but not limited to delivery of comfort measures, providing of patient teaching activities and ssisting the patient meet their needs where aid is needed. The said motherly care provides a standard that can be followed by nurses to ensure that patients are receiving the best possible care that they could have. • Build a medium to use in interdependent communication within the health care team Image Source: http://www. authorstream. com/Presentation/aSGuest3761-112873-peplau-interpersonal-nursing-theory-enter-tags-hildegard-education-ppt-powerpoint/ Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Model supports interdependent communication among the health care team members.
One situation that I can cite which in fact proves the credibility of such model is when I was having my duty in the high-risk section of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Back then, I handled a preterm patient with sepsis and pneumonia. Her condition eventually deteriorated after a couple of hours since I entered on my tour of duty for that particular day. Aside from notifying the paediatrician on duty, I also talked to the respiratory therapist to set up the mechanical ventilator to change the values of the respiratory indicators.
With the referral and notification I had done at that time, the baby returned to her previous and better state. • Boost autonomy of nurses by defining their own independent functions Image Source: http://www. eshcs. com/ Through the various nursing theories, nurses can better understand that they have the capacity to do tasks in their own prerogatives. Without any doctor’s order, a nurse can care and cure (Lydia Hall’s Three C’s). Speaking of care, patient care is actually the essence of nursing.
It is the primary role of a nurse among others in the health care team behind the fact that patients are being handled most of the time by nurses instead of doctors who just come and go (Primacy of Caring Model by Patricia Benner and Judith Wrubel). More theories can elevate nursing as a profession that is independent in its own way. They enhance the nurses’ autonomy to render nursing interventions without apprehensions for different nursing theories