Using Common Expression to Improve Spoken and Written Communication Presented to: Mrs. Genoveva Ramos In partial fulfillment of the course requirements in English 1b Writing in the Disciplines Presented By: Patricia Costales Desiree Santos Britzzh Yra March 2010 Using Common Expressions to Improve Spoken and Written Communication INTRODUCTION English is now the dominant or official language in over 60 countries and is represented in every language is a vital means of communication for millions of people around the world.
During the twentieth century, numerous technological inventions and developments, such as the telephone. fax, electronic mail, internet, etc. have facilitated communication between people from all walks of life and the language that is used most is English, as the following quote proves, “Most of the scientific, technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English and over 80% of all the information stored in electronic retrieval systems is in English. (Crystal, 1997,106, http://www. 3telus. net/linguistics/linguafranco. tm) A language us systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is an oral communication by mouth. It is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication. It is system for communicating ides, specifically, human speech, and the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth. This is a system for communication. A language us the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people.
Our use of language in written and spoken forms is one of the most important ways by which we can communicate our understanding, gather new information, participate in the academic and professional world, and interact socially. In academic studies, written English is particularly important. Ways of communicating in different subject areas must be mastered, and the language must be appropriate. Official or serious situations are often signaled by the use of formal language, while ordinary or relaxed situations are signaled by the use of informal language. Formality of language varies in relation to such factors as public v. rivate occasion, the size of the audience, the relationship of the speaker/writer with the audience, and so on. The ability to vary your language according to the situation is often considered a mark of an educated person. Formal language, even when spoken, is often associated with the conventions expected of written standard English. At its most extreme, formal language is signaled by complex, complete sentences, impersonality, avoidance of colloquial or slang vocabulary, and a consistent preference for learned? Words often derived from Latin. Informal language is characterized by a simpler grammatical structure (i. . loosely-connected sentences and phrases), personal evaluation, and a colloquial or slang vocabulary. People often speak of language as being correct or incorrect. It would be more accurate to refer to particular language structures as being formal or informal, appropriate or inappropriate for a specific context. In everyday conversation we do not have to follow the rules of grammar as carefully as we would in a formal address or a business letter. If we adhere too closely to formal rules of grammar in an informal situation, we can come across as being stuffy and unnatural.
It is like wearing a tuxedo or a formal gown to an ordinary business meeting. Formal English follow rules of grammar very strictly. Sentences tend to be longer and more complex. The vocabulary tends to be elevated, using big words and avoiding slang or vernacular. It avoids split infinitives and prepositions at the end of sentences. Informal language may make use of slang and colloquialisms, employing the conventions of spoken language. However, it is too casual and loose to be acceptable for academic writing. Formal language uses a Latinate vocabulary and rhetorical devices to create literary-like effects.
Written and spoken versions of a language use different styles, different registers. To talk in “written English” may be no more appropriate than to write using a “spoken” variety of English. Generally speaking, written English is always more formal than spoken English. nevertheless, there are informal forms of written English (notably in fiction and in the popular press), and formal styles of spoken English, in particular “discourse”, or prepared speech. Using Common Expressions to Improve Spoken & Written Communication BODY/ DISCUSSION Spoken and written communication
In both professional and social settings, we adapt our language according to the situation. As users of English, or any other language, we develop an understanding of what is accepted as culturally appropriate language and behavior. The central element of all spoken and written communication is context: what the purpose of the communication is and who the participants are. The questions listed below show the importance of context in determining how the communication takes place. Purpose In most cases, communication fulfils a number of different functions. However, the speaker/writer always has an over-riding objective.
For example, is the intention of the speaker/writer to: •present a point of view? •critique a theory or argument? •report research findings? •evaluate evidence from research? •disseminate information? •negotiate an arrangement? •promote a policy/service? •complain about a product/service? Participants The relationship between the speaker-listener/s and writer-reader/s and the situation affects the type of language and level of formality used. For example, is the relationship one of: •health care professional and client/patient? •colleagues in a professional setting? •school teacher and parent? colleagues in a social setting? •Formal and informal language •Language exists on a continuum from formal to informal. Context affects the level of formality of the language we use. Examples of communication at the informal end of the continuum are face-to-face and telephone conversations and e-mails, for instance, with peers. At the informal end are lectures, speeches, research reports and academic essays. However, in most types of communication, we used a combination of more and less formal language. The table below contrasts the main features of each. Formal and informal language
Informal Formal Phrasal verbs (verb + preposition) e. g. look at, hand inSingle verbs e. g. investigate, consider, observe; submit Informal vocabulary e. g. get bigger, got, a lot Formal vocabulary e. g. increase, obtained, considerable Active voice e. g. Researchers developed a new vaccine. Passive voice e. g. A new vaccine was developed. Uses personal pronouns e. g. You can see the results in Figure 1. (active voice)Avoids personal pronouns e. g. The results can be seen/are shown in Figure 1. (passive voice) Contracted forms e. g. haven’t, fridge, ‘cosFull forms e. g. ave not, refrigerator, because Slang e. g. whinge, bucksStandard words/expressions e. g. complain, dollars Abbreviations e. g. i. e. , ASAPFull words/expressions e. g. that is, as soon as possible Informal greeting e. g. Cheers, RegardsMore formal greeting e. g. (Yours) Sincerely •Note that both active and passive voices are used in informal as well as formal styles of communication. However, the passive voice is more frequently used in formal writing, for example a research report, as it more effectively communicates the writer’s intention and, at the same time, it sounds more impersonal.
Using Common Expressions to Improve Spoken and Written Communication SUMMARY Improving your written communication skills Use good general and technical dictionaries efficiently You can learn a lot about language from your dictionary. The first few pages explain the symbols used; these will alert you to the kind of things dictionaries can teach. In addition to grammatical information, many current dictionaries provide information about differences in usage between spoken and written language, as well as groups of synonyms.
Dictionaries are also very useful for checking your spelling and will explain possible variations, for example, where there are differences between American English on the one hand, and British and Australian English on the other. Consult a writing guide Writing guides generally cover all aspects of academic writing, including basic principles about writing style, grammar, sentence structure, vocabulary choice, and good paragraphing. Some writing guides are designed for writing in specific disciplines. See the Further Reading section for suggestions. Use a grammar check with caution
Computer grammar checks are intended for writing for a range of everyday purposes. They are, therefore, not always very useful for academic writing. For example, grammar checks, particularly those based on American English, do not accept a passive sentence as grammatical and will suggest that you change it to an active sentence. However, in academic writing, there are many instances in which you will need to use a passive sentence. Moreover, grammar checks are not entirely reliable: they frequently miss grammatical mistakes, or underline correct sentences as ungrammatical.
To get the most out of computer grammar checks, you need to have some knowledge of English grammar. When you are uncertain about suggestions made, consult a grammar book. See the Further Reading section for suggestions. Use a thesaurus with caution Many students consult the thesaurus on their computer when attempting to paraphrase material from sources they read. However, you should check the meaning of the synonym you have selected in a good dictionary. Although it may be a synonym, it may not be appropriate in the context in which you want to use it.
In other words, synonyms often differ in usage. Using Common Expressions to Improve Spoken and Written Communication BIBLIOGRAPHY http://myhome. hanafos. com/~philoint/lecture/eng-data/formal-or-informal-1. htm http://www. brighthub. com/education/k-12/articles/26917. aspx http://www. englishonline. org. cn/en/exams-work/ielts-preparation-articles/article-eleven http://www. wikihow. com/Avoid-Colloquial-%28Informal%29-Writing http://www. tutorvista. com/ks/teaching-formal-and-informal-language http://www. lingref. com/cpp/acal/36/paper1422. pdf http://www. 3telus. net/linguistics/linguafranco. htm