1. What demographic variables were measured at the interval degree of measurings? Age. Income. Length of labour. Return to work and figure of hours working per hebdomad. 2. What statistics were used to depict the length of labour in this survey? Mean and standard divergence were used to depict the length of labour. These were appropriate since mean and standard divergence can be calculated on an interval degree of measuring. 3. What other statistics could hold been used to depict the length of labour? Supply a principle for your reply? Range could besides be used to depict the length of labour since this statistic can be used on interval informations with no natural zero point. 4. Be the distributions of tonss similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labour? Supply a principle for your reply. The distribution of tonss was similar for the experimental and control groups for length of labour. The experimental group had a mean of 14. 63 hours and the control group had a mean of 12. 79 hours which is a difference of less than 2 hours with a SD of 7. 78 for experimental and 7. 2 for control.
5. Be the experimental and the control groups similar in their type of feeding? Supply a principle for your reply. The experimental and control groups were similar in the type of feeding. More people fed with a bottle than chest or chest and bottle in the experimental and control group. The per centums in both were lowest for chest and bottle with 6. 3 % for experimental and 5. 6 % for control. 6. What was the matrimonial position manner for the topics in the experimental and control groups? Provide both frequence and per centum for the matrimonial position manner for both groups. Married was the matrimonial position manner for the experimental group and control group since it was the largest group. The frequence and per centum are 25 and 78. 1 % for the experimental group and 31 and 86. 1 % for the control group who are married
7. Could a average be determined for the instruction informations? If so. what would the average be for instruction for experimental and the control groups? Supply a principle for your reply. Yes. a average can be determined for the educational information. The median for the experimental and the control group are the people in the some college group. The median is the “middle” class and can be determined for ordinal informations like instruction. 8. Can the findings from this survey be generalized to black adult females? Supply a rational for your reply. The findings from this survey can non be generalized to Black adult females since the sample size is so low in the experimental group and there are no Black adult females in the control group. Black adult females might hold different self- attention intercessions to pull off post- partum weariness than white adult females.
9. If there were 32 topics in the experimental group and 36 topics in the control group. why is the income informations merely reported for 30 topics in the experimental group and 34 topics in the control group? There is a note at the underside of the tabular array that mentions that there is losing informations. Possibly some female parents did non uncover that information. 10. Be the sample for the survey adequately described? Supply a principle for your reply. The sample was adequately described. However. adding information about any complications before or during births. the type of bringing for illustration C-section vs. natural. or if the adult females had any aid such as a nursemaid would add to the description.
Exercise 16: Mean and Standard Deviation
1. The research workers analyzed the information they collected as though it were at what degree of measuring?
Answer: c. The research workers analyzed the information as though it were at the interval/ratio degree since they calculated agencies ( the step of cardinal inclination that is appropriate merely for interval/ratio degree informations ) and standard divergences ( the step of scattering for interval/ratio informations ) to depict their survey variables.
2. What was the average posttest authorization mark for the control group? Answer: Mean = 97. 12.
3. Compare the average baseline and posttest depression tonss of the experimental group. Was this an expected determination? Supply a principle for your reply. Answer: The experimental group topics scored lower on the depression posttest ( average = 13. 36 vs. the baseline mark of average = 14. 00 ) . intending that they were less down after the completion of the empowerment plan. This was an expected determination. because the research workers hypothesized that the empowerment plan would be good to ESRD patients and consequence in a lessening in their depression tonss. However. the difference in the depression baseline and posttest agencies for the experimental group was merely 0. 64. which is less than what might hold been expected.
4. Compare the average baseline and posttest depression tonss of the control group. Make these tonss strengthen or weaken the cogency of the research consequences? Supply a principle for your reply. Answer: The average baseline and posttest depression tonss of the control group were indistinguishable. Both means equaled 10. 40. which indicate that there was no alteration in the degree of depression of the control group subjects from baseline to posttest. This consequence strengthens the cogency of the survey findings. bespeaking that the empowerment plan resulted in a lessening in the depression scores for the experimental group.
5. Which group’s trial tonss had the least sum of variableness or scattering? Supply a principle for your reply. Answer: The experimental group’s authorization posttest tonss had the smallest sum of scattering or variableness. as indicated by the smallest South dakota of 7. 28.
6. Make the authorization variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest sum of scattering? Supply a principle for your reply. Answer: The experimental group’s baseline self-care self-efficacy tonss had the greatest scattering as evidenced by the largest South dakota of 14. 88.
7. The mean ( X ) is a step of ________________ __________________ of a distribution while the SD is a step of _____________________ of its tonss. Both X and SD is _________________ statistics.
Answer: The mean ( X ) is a step of cardinal inclination of a distribution while SD is a step of scattering of its tonss. Both X and SD is descriptive statistics.
8. What was the average badness for nephritic disease for the research subjects? What was the scattering or variableness of the nephritic disease badness tonss? Did the badness scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this of import? Supply a principle for your reply.
Answer: The average badness mark for nephritic disease was 6. 74 and was provided in the Relevant Study Results. The scattering of the nephritic disease badness tonss was SD = 2. 97. with the scope of badness tonss being 0–10. There was no important difference in nephritic disease badness scores for the control and the experimental groups as indicated in the Relevant Study Results. It is of import to bespeak that the research topics were similar in demographic features at the start of the survey. and the differences noted in the survey variables are assumed to be due to the intervention and non to differences in the groups at the start of the survey.
9. Which variable was to the lowest degree affected by the authorization plan? Supply a principle for your reply. Answer: The subjects’ mean or mean depression tonss showed the least alteration as compared to their baseline values ( merely 0. 64 points as compared to 6. 64 points for authorization and 6. 44 points for self-care self-efficacy ) . However. it is of import to observe that the mean mark for the depression graduated table was lower than for the authorization and self-care self-efficacy graduated tables.
10. Be it of import for the research workers to include the entire agencies and SDs for the survey variables in Table 2 to advance the readers’ apprehension of the survey consequences? Supply a principle for your reply.
Answer: No. it was non of import to the readers’ understanding to hold the entire agencies and SDs for the survey variables. The chief focal point of the tabular array was to depict ( utilizing X and SD ) the survey variables for the experimental and control groups. Although it is interesting to hold the entire sample agencies and SDs. these do non add to the overall apprehension of the information presented in this survey. These entire agencies and SDs for survey variables are non utile in finding sample size for future surveies or for carry oning meta-analyses of several studies’ consequences.