Verification and Validation of the System Essay


This essay will discourse all the needed things about the nutrient safety. Some of the pathogens, salmonella, campylobactar and escherichiacoli have been mentioned. Apart from them, all types of hazards that come with the allergen taint have been given with proper word picture.

The chief thing is that all the above-named things have been explained here with a focal point on the nutrient safety direction. Some of the tools such as preparation, irradiation and specially HACCP ( Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points ) to back up cordial reception direction have besides occupied some infinite here with all its prominence and importance.As a concluding point, it has been thought to be expedient to analyze the solution with recommendations for practical acceptance for the cordial reception industry. And most significantly, there has been an inclusion of the manner nutrient safety is brought into usage as portion of the corporate direction system.It is known to everybody that the universe is full of assorted sorts of jobs.

And it is true that mundane attempts are made to happen out solution to these jobs and some of them are sorted out excessively. Among the issues concerned straight with the human endurance, which are presenting a really large challenge in forepart of the universe, one is the issue of nutrient safety. The best thing about it is that consumers, industries and authoritiess together are taking it into deep consideration as a serious issue. We all know that wellness is wealth and any sloppiness which may do nutrient toxic condition or any job like this may take to a really fatal effect, so it becomes indispensable to take necessary nutrient safety steps.

The possibility of nutrient toxic condition additions peculiarly when nutrient or comestible materials are non handled with required attention either at place or at a store and eating house. And when it is the clip of catastrophe like temblor or inundation, nutrient toxic condition becomes a really common job ( Satin, 1999 ) . Food toxic condition is a general term for wellness jobs originating from eating contaminated nutrient. Food may be contaminated by bacteriums, viruses, environmental toxins, or toxins present within the nutrient itself, such as the toxicants in some mushrooms or certain seafood. The cause of nutrient poisoning autumn into four chief classs Bacterial nutrient toxic condition, Viral nutrient toxic condition, Chemical nutrient toxic condition and Vegetable nutrient toxic condition ( Trickett, 1987 ) Symptoms of nutrient poisoning normally involve sickness, purging and/or diarrhoea. Some food-borne toxins can impact the nervous system. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthatoz.

comHarmonizing to Foodlink there are maximal figure of nutrient toxic condition instances in United Kingdom as compared to Scotland, Northern Islands and Wales ( see appendices ) which clearly states that around 5.5 million people get nutrient toxic condition every twelvemonth which can be seen from the graphs which shows that the highest figure of nutrient toxic condition instances are in U.K.

It is harmful bacteriums, Fungis, or other such sources which by and large cause nutrient toxic condition. Sometimes nutrient goes bad due to some toxic substances. Some have the confusion that nutrient is poisoned by seting some deleterious material, but it is non true. Sources or bacteriums grow in the nutrient themselves when people do n’t hive away it decently or manage with attention. Even in the electric refrigerator, the nutrient may acquire bacteriums. Some nutrient toxic condition is of mild degree and some is strong degree ( Eley, 1996 ) . Consequently the nutrient affects the human organic structure and causes wellness jobs.

Sometimes it may be fatal excessively.This taint of nutrient is really hurtful and can take to bacterial stomach flu or infective diarrhoea. Common ailments which are found in instance of nutrient toxic condition are sickness, purging, abdominal spasms, diarrhoea, musculus hurting, febrility, failing, and weariness. With the exclusion of C. botulinus, the bacteriums cause redness and swelling in the. Intestines are severely affected by bacteriums except C. botulinus.

They cause swelling and redness, taking to desiccation which causes the loss of indispensable fluids in the organic structure. The strength of complication depends on the type and sum of sources taken in through the contaminated nutrient. Sometimes the symptoms start being noticeable merely in a few proceedingss and sometimes they take clip. ( see appendices ) If it is of mild nature, it is non so unsafe ; but if it strong, it may be serious ( McLauchlin and Little, 2007 ) .It is infective bacteriums, viruses or toxins which cause nutrient borne unwellness. And it happens merely when some contaminated nutrient or drink is taken in.

Gastro-intestinal infections or disease have certain symptoms which like sickness, purging, tummy hurting, diarrhoea, or fever. These symptoms are about like those found in instance such unwellnesss caused by other beginnings. Infective bacteriums are by and large found at assorted topographic points and can pollute nutrient most likely. Human and animate being faces by and large contain this sort of bacteriums. Pathogens are of assorted types and they affect the human organic structure otherwise, so the symptoms may or may non be the same. Some pathogens may do even symptoms like concern, icterus, and numbness ( Eley et al.

, 1999 ) .There is another type of bacteriums called Salmonella which besides affect the tummy and bowels. It is unrefined milk, domestic fowl, eggs, H2O and meat, in which it is found. As it was the same instance in twelvemonth 1980 when there was addition in the salmonella in eggs and poulets. ( See appendices – 1 ) Some pets like birds and polo-necks besides carry this Salmonella. The most dismaying thing about it is that it can even travel into the lymph piece of lands, which are known for tracking H2O and protein to the blood, and the blood itself. Thus it may do some serious complications excessively ( Satin, 2007 ) .

Another bacterium which can do nutrient toxic condition is Campylobacter. Diarrhoea, cramping, abdominal hurting, and febrility are the most common complications which get start coming up within 2 to 5 yearss after exposure to the being. In this instance there may be blood dysentery with sickness and emesis. Sometimes it is so unsafe that it becomes really fatal. It happens so peculiarly when people have low immune and because of which Campylobacter gets into blood stream and causes a serious dangerous infection. It is the months of summer when the instances of Campylobacteriosis ( campylobacter infection ) are by and large found. Babies and immature grownups get this infection more often.

In comparing with males, females are more susceptible to it. After the diarrheal unwellness due to campylobacteriosis, some people have been to endure from arthritis and a rare disease that affects the nervousnesss of the organic structure called Guillain-Barr & A ; eacute ; syndrome. Guillain-Barr & A ; eacute ; needs intensive attention as it may do even palsy ( McLauchlin and Little, 2007 ) .Escherichia coli ( E.

coli ) belong to the host of bacterial sources. It is the enteric piece of land of adult male and some other warm blooded animate beings ( mammals, birds ) where it can be found. E. coli gets into the unfertile alimental piece of land of freshly born babes merely within two yearss. E. coli is non supposed to be so harmful, but sometimes it may be.

Particular toxins are produced by a group of E. coli called enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, or ETEC. The liner of the bowels which secretes inordinate fluid is stimulated by these toxins, which eventually cause diarrhoea ( Satin, 2007 ) . ( Example An eruption of nutrient toxic condition associated with E.coli was responsible for 15 deceases in Scotland in 1996 ) Food safety direction, Heinemann, B ( 2002 )Appendixs – 2 shows the safety steps for commanding the nutrient toxic condition and what are the causes of nutrient poising and how the growing of bacteriums can be reduced.

Sing wellness jeopardies caused by contaminated nutrient, concerned organisations have started asseverating the importance of quality nutrient. World Trade Organization ( WTO ) has made it compulsory for all member provinces to follow international nutrient criterions guidelines in the domain of foreign trade, and an understanding has been made in footings of Sanitary and Phytosanitary ( SPS ) measures. The conformity with Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points ( HACCP ) , which is a direction system for nutrient safety, is a critical component of these guidelines ( Paster, 2006 ) .With a position to commanding nutrient safety, a HACCP system is a preventative measure. It is non the terminal merchandise proving to a more positive, defensive attack of commanding possible jeopardies, on which HACCP depends.

It is the Codex Aliment Arius Commission in the Codex Aliment Arius Code of Practice which characterized the modern HACCP system and guidelines for its application ( Mayes and Mortimore, 2001 ) .It is the perfect certification, which matters basically every bit far as the successful execution of HACCP is concerned. The nutrient that we are covering with is got ready beforehand. Therefore, right care of preparation records, temperature control measures, information accessible on providers, the analytical categorization of indispensable degrees at which there is the possibility of taint. A exhaustively noticeable exercising right from the farm to the fork is ensured by the HACCP system. But for this there must be the application of a methodical certification supported by a acute squad attempt centered on transporting out the pertinent processs ( Jay et al.

, 2005 ) . ( see appendices )As respects to safety jobs in nutrient processing, HACCP has proved a successful direction system which is rather logical, and scientific in attack. Theoretically HACCP is applicable in all sorts of nutrient concatenation, which may change from the primary manufacturer to concluding consumer.Five preliminary stairss and 7 HACCP rules that wholly explain this system are of paramount importance ( Alli, 2003 ) :Chiefly what is to be taken to notice is the complete dedication and engagement of direction and the labour force. Directors, agronomists, microbiologist, public wellness scientist, veterinaries, nutrient engineer, production forces, and medical experts should be gathered together by the direction to carry through the aim. Then there comes the proper specification of the merchandises by HACCP squad which includes the name of the merchandise, methods to utilize them, packaging, labeling instructions, and distribution.

Now what is of import is a complete list of ingredients and a procedure flow diagram. Taking these things into history, rules which are concerned with the HACCP program become the points of focal point ( Alli, 2003 ) .

Conduct Hazard Analysis

The belongings which determines a nutrient whether it is insecure for human ingestion or non is referred as a nutrient safety jeopardy.

The HACCP squad traces the possible jeopardies at each measure in the procedure flow diagram, and happen out preventative steps if any. For case, if a merchandise contains Indian potatos, the presence of of course happening aflatoxin7 is to be checked.Identify Critical Control PointsA nutrient safety jeopardy can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable degrees with the aid of a critical control point ( CCP ) .

It involves a CCP determination tree which helps the squad would compose down the jeopardies, and take the possible preventative steps.Set Critical Limits for Preventive Measures Associated with Each CCPFor the control of a physical, biological or chemical jeopardy at a CCP, the critical bounds are set to the highest and lowest values which help debar, eliminate or decrease the chance of the occurrence of an identified safety jeopardy to a satisfactory degree. The with the aid of bounds based on scientific literature, regulative demands, experimental surveies and adept sentiments, HACCP squad has to chalk out a chart for the critical bounds.Establish Monitoring ProceduresTo hold control on a CCP and to make a precise record for future use and verification, there came up the demand of something which is the monitoring process. This is a sequence of measurings, which gives indicant as to whether or non system is traveling down with control. There should be consistent monitoring by utilizing automatic time/temperature gages. But along with that there should be regular checking of the gage for truth at fixed clip intervals. Frequency of monitoring must be noticed by the HACCP squad to corroborate if it is adequate and random.

This helps command the jeopardy if any, easing non-continuous monitoring like ocular scrutinies, ingredient specifications etc.Establish Corrective ActionsWhere divergence is non a success to come across the critical bounds, it is the processs of disciplinary actions, which are adopted. When the critical bounds are non met at a CCP, the squad should find in progress what it would make. And this is what HACCP is all approximately and this works as a pro-active system. For conveying timely disciplinary actions into consequence, the employees must be trained.

At the same clip it is besides necessary that the disciplinary action certification is required to be signed. But it is non possible to think all disciplinary actions which are required to take determination refering the discarding of non-conforming stuff, rectifying the cause of divergence, meaning that CCP is one time once more in control, and maintain up record of the disciplinary action.Establish Record Keeping ProcedureHarmonizing to HACCP, record maintaining is really of import. While maintaining records it must be cared that they must be in order holding information on rubric and day of the month of record, critical bounds, merchandise designation, clip of observation, and most significantly they must be signed by the monitoring employees and the valuator to uphold liability. Record maintaining has its ain benefits. a certification of a house ‘s conformity with HACCP program, following history of an ingredient, a procedure or a merchandise and, grounds against possible cases against the house are the things which are all because of these complete and accurate records.Confirmation and Validation of the SystemConfirmation and proof of the system is besides an indispensable factor.

Calibration of procedure monitoring instruments must be verified by the HACCP squad by corroborating if employees are maintaining precise, right and timely records. There should be regular internal auditing. Besides, the norms set in the HACCP program by denoting scientific literature, experimental research consequences, merchandise proving consequences and, regulative demands must be validated.

All this has to travel a manner to complete the full HACCP system program. Following comes the bend of a certifying bureau which audits the HACCP program developed in this manner, which is really of import for HACCP enfranchisement. Subsequently, the auditing of the HACCP program must be carried out every six months.

Now what is really indispensable is the bettering of quality of domestically produced nutrient merchandises, maintaining caput to caput competition in the domestic and export market. And this calls for HACCP as a direction system for nutrient safety. The regretting fact about it is that there are really few nutrient treating corporate companies these yearss which have taken up HACCP system in their workss as the development of HACCP involves a high cost which plays an of import function. ( see appendices ) So, proper consciousness is required in this way. At the same clip excess attempts should be made to do it more feasible and for this proper preparation and counsel are required to develop it as a more competitory scheme.


To sum, no uncertainty the universe is full of several types of jobs and mundane attempts are made to happen out solution to these jobs and some of them are solved every bit good.

Among the issues concerned straight with the human endurance, which are presenting a really large challenge before the universe, one is the issue of nutrient safety. Everyone knows that taint of nutrient is really hurtful and can take to bacterial stomach flu or infective diarrhoea. Food safety comes foremost as it is in fact the base of life, when it comes to wellness and edifice a good organic structure. But the pleasance of wellness gets spoiled when people take some contaminated nutrient material. Sing wellness jeopardies caused by contaminated nutrient, concerned organisations have started asseverating the importance of quality nutrient.

In brief, it can be said that taking things such conductivity of jeopardy analysis, designation of critical controls points, puting critical bounds for preventative steps associated with each CCP, constitution of monitoring processs, constitution of disciplinary actions, set up record maintaining process, confirmation and Validation of the System and the similar into the history the aims can be achieved by the nutrient safety direction.


As the cordial reception industry is a huge industry so to maintain a healthy environment for its invitees the hotels should see the undermentioned recommendations: –

  • The hotels should follow HACCP principals by supplying its staff with assorted preparations about the safety steps.
  • High degree direction should be good educated and trained.
  • The kitchen section should follow up the cook- iciness and cook- freezing principal where the nutrient handling is a first pick
  • The hotels should hold adequate deep-freezes and shop suites to maintain the natural stuff
  • Stock rotary motion should be considered as a major precedence
  • Staff should be provided with proper developing about the nutrient safety direction.

The Ten Main Reasons For Food Poisoning

  1. Inadequate cooling/refrigeration, nutrient left at room temperature.
  2. Excessively long between readying and ingestion.

  3. Inadequate reheating.
  4. Inadequate cookery.
  5. Cross-contamination from natural to high risk/ready to eat nutrients.
  6. Infected nutrient animal trainers.

  7. Inadequate hot keeping temperatures.
  8. Inadequate manus lavation.
  9. Contaminated natural nutrients and ingredients.
  10. Improper cleansing of equipment and utensils.

Prevention of Food PoisoningIn most instances of nutrient poisoning a concatenation of events takes topographic point, and if we are to cut down the incidence of unwellness, this concatenation must be broken.There are three chief ways of interrupting the nutrient toxic condition concatenation –

  • Protecting nutrient from taint.

  • Preventing any bacteria nowadays in the nutrient from multiplying.
  • Destroying those bacteriums that are present in the nutrient.
  • Protecting Food From Contamination By –

  • Inspecting all nutrient and lavation fruit and veggies before readying.
  • Separating natural and high risk/ready to eat nutrients at all phases of readying, storage, show and distribution.
  • The same equipment, utensils and working surfaces must non be used to manage natural and high risk/ready to eat nutrients.

  • Merely managing nutrient when ineluctable. Baseball gloves, tongs and other utensils, home bases and trays should be used in penchant to custodies, ( but must be washed or changed often ) .
  • Keeping nutrient covered every bit much as possible.
  • Preventing insects, animate beings and birds from come ining nutrient suites.
  • Not utilizing unsuitable, faulty, or soiled equipment.
  • Using good personal hygiene patterns – ever.

  • Not coughing or sneezing over or about nutrient.
  • Not managing the nutrient contact surfaces of dishware, cutter or utensils.
  • All nutrient animal trainers have oning suited protective vesture.
  • Using the right cleansing processs.


  • Alli, I. ( 2003 ) , Food Quality Assurance, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis LLC, US.

  • Eley, A. R. ( 1996 ) , Microbial nutrient toxic condition, 2nd edition, Chapman & A ; Hall, London, pp. 200
  • Eley, A. R.

    , Moss, S. Sharp, M. and Robertsm C. ( 1999 ) , Microbial Food Poisoning Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Heinemann, B.

    ( 2002 ) , Food safety direction in the cordial reception industry, Elsever scientific discipline, Sheffilied.

  • Jay, James M. , Loessner, Martin J. and Golden, David A. ( 2005 ) , Modern Food Microbiology, Springer Publishing, US. Mayes, T.

    and Mortimore, S. ( 2001 ) , Making the most of HACCP: Learning from others ‘ experience, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge.

  • McLauchlin, J. and Little, C.

    ( 2007 ) , Hobbs ‘ Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene, 7 editions, Hodder Arnold, UK.

  • Paster, T. ( 2006 ) , The HACCP Food Safety Employee Manual, John & A ; Wiley Sons, London.

  • Satin, M. ( 2007 ) , Death in the Pot: The Impact of Food Poisoning on History, Prometheus Books, UK.
  • Satin, M. ( 1999 ) , Food Alert! : The Ultimate Source for Food Safety, 1st edition, Fitzhenry & A ; Whiteside Ltd. , Publishers, Canada.

  • Trickett, J. ( 1987 ) , The Prevention of Food poisoning,2 nd Edition, Stanley Thornes Ltd. , Leckhampton
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  • Food Poisoning, Micro-Organisms, ( online ) cited on 10 November hypertext transfer protocol: //
  • Controling Salmonella in eggs, ( online ) cited on 10 November
  • Food Poisoning, ( online ) cited on 3 November hypertext transfer protocol: // requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/food_poisoning.jsp
  • Execution of HACCP, ( online ) cited on 15 November hypertext transfer protocol: //