What is an electrode potential?Electrode potential is the difference between the charge on an electrode and the charge in the solution. According to the Nernst equation, the Electrode potential is depended on the concentration of the substances and the temperature. E= E-0.0592/n * log QE = electrode potential E=The voltagen = Number of moles of electron transferredQ = ConcentrationThese factors determine the electrode potential Did the ranking of reduction equations agree with that in the published chart of E ? values?Theoretically, the ranking of reduction equations should be the same as the published chart of Evalues. However, the standard table of reduction potential that we obtain, did not exactly compare with the accepted table.How should the values found using the zinc electrode as a standard compare with those in the E ? table that are based on the standard hydrogen electrode? Did they?The values found using zinc electrode as standard should be greater than the values in Etable by 0.76V, because the values in the E table are based on the standard hydrogen electrode which is 0V. When we use zinc electrode as the standard, the voltage of zinc electrode is 0. However, when we use hydrogen electrode as the standard, the voltage of zinc electrode would not be 0, but actually 0.76V. Which is why there is a difference of 0.76V between the two data table because we have two different standard. What does a negative value for a standard potential indicate?A negative value for standard potential indicate that the reaction is more likely to favor an oxidation (losing electron) instead of reduction. It also indicates that the cell itself is not galvanic and the reaction is not spontaneous. How did the change in concentration of the copper ions in Part 2 a?ect the cell potential? Is this change in agreement (qualitatively) with that which would be predicted by LeChatelier’s Principle?Did the calculated and measured values agree?E= E-0.0592/n * log Q According to the nernst equation, the electrode potential depends on the centration of the substances. The Q in the last part of the equation represent the reaction quotient between the two substances, therefore by changing the concentration of the copper ion would also change the reaction quotient causing direction affect to the electrode potential. In our experiment, as for one molar solution, the reduction potential was 1.09V, and when the solution was change to 0.001M, the potential reduced up to 0.84. This shows the agreement of the LeChatelier Principle. The LeChatelier Principle stated “When any system at equilibrium is subjected to change in concentration, temperature, volume, or pressure, then the system readjusts itself to counteract (partially) the effect of the applied change and a new equilibrium is established.”When the concentration of copper was reduced from (1 M –> 0.001M), the volts were also reduce which fits into LeChatelier’s Principle of the “system readjusts itself to counteract the effect of the applied change”. Explain how the AgCl solubility product was determined.AgCl solubility product was determined through the use of nernst equation with the help of Kspequation. Even though we didn’t exactly do our experiment, however in part 3, the unknown in this case was the concentration of Ag+. Since the electrode potential of Ag+was already given to us, therefore we can plug this into the Nernst equation to find out the Ksp. Furthermore, since the amount of Cl-in this experiment was known to be approximately 1, therefore it would equals to the concentration of Ag+Conclusion/Evaluation: In this experiment, we created a standard table of reduction potentials with a series of metal ions such as lead, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper. The half cells in part 1 are connected using a salt bridge we created by adding KNO3onto a small piece of paper towel, and the potential of the reaction is measured with zinc standard electrode. In part 2 and part 3, many data was calculated through the Nernst equation such as the voltage of a nonstandard copper cell or the solubility product of AgCl. In this experiment, the biggest source of error is the contamination between the mixture of two cells in the well plates. Since we’re using well plates in this experiment, there is a big possibility of previous solution remain in the well plates or solution could accidently be mixed up with other one. This would destroyed the intended redox reaction, causing the result ot have different voltage with the respect to zinc electrode. This could cause a huge impact to the calculation because our predicted and measured cell potentials would be wrong. Contamination could cause an impact to the reaction because different amount of electron transfer would occur at the salt bridge, creating a different voltage than we expect. Other possible error within this experiment could be the voltmeter. During the experiment, when we measuring the voltage of the reaction, the reading is constantly moving and we couldn’t get a precise measurement of the reaction. This could possible cause an error when we are using our collected data for calculation. One of the ways to improve the precision of this experiment is to do more trials. Since we’re only doing one set of trials this experiment, it indicates there is no data to compare the result making the data less reliable. Other way to improve this experiment is to have a more precise equipments, such as a brand new well plates could avoid possible contamination from the previous solutions or a more precise voltmeter.