Since recent years the changes in the weather patterns caused by the Global Warming has caused anxiousness among Environmentalists, Weather forecasters, Naturalists etc. on the surface of the Earth all over the world. These changes are having the adverse effect on plants, wild life and humans.
Global Warming is an average increase in the temperature of the Earth’s surface causing changes in the rainfall patterns and rise in sea level. It is caused when the gases like Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, chloroflurocarbons (CFS), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are emitted due to the continuous use of fossil fuels for energy. These gases do not allow the earth’s heat to escape into the atmosphere i.e. they trap the heat by forming the blanket around the earth and thus increase the temperatures of the ground. The studies have indicated that the emissions of these gases will result in global warming from 2.5ºF to 10.4ºF by 2100. (Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Online resources)
Svante Arrhenius in 19th century was the first Scientist to make this unique discovery of the effect of the human activity on the temperature. His discovered that sions emersing from industries could increase CO2 levels in 3,000 years, that could warm the planet. Again in 1938 a British engineer, Guy Callendar in his talk to the Royal Meteorological Society claimed that the world was warming, but people called him eccentric. In the nineteenth century the mere idea of this global warming was mere fiction for the intellectuals.( Climate Leadership Initiative, Online).
In the past century there has been the increase in the Global average air temperature near the Earth’s surface which rises from 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.3 ± 0.32 °F) .( Wikipedia encyclopeadia, online edition.) According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Since the twentieth century most of the increase in globally averaged temperatures is due to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations warming the surface and lowering the atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect.” (Wikipedia encyclopeadia, online edition.)
The rise in temperature will increase the temperatures at poles thus melting glaciers. If the current situation prevails, in next hundred years or so, the sea level will rise by 110-770mm thus submerging the coastal areas causing havoc to human lives. The change in weather patterns cause droughts in some and floods in other areas. Thermohaline circulation will get slow, ozone layer will get depleted and this may increase the frequency of hurricanes and its intensity. PH value of oceans will get lower and the human health will be affected with the spread of diseases. There will be great threat to agriculture and bio diversity too. According to one study based on the climatic predictions, 18 % to 35 % of sample of 1.103 species of plants and animals may go extinct by 2050 (Wikipedia encyclopeadia, online edition). Whereas Terry L. Root, a senior fellow with Stanford’s Institute for International Studies (IIS) and lead author of the Jan. 2 Journal of nature, reveals that, “Birds are laying eggs earlier than usual, plants are flowering earlier and mammals are breaking hibernation sooner,”. Further Root even says that if this trend continues then the time is not far when many more outreaching effects on species and ecosystems can be clearly seen on species and ecosystems when temperatures could increase as much as 11 F (6 C),”. (Shwartz, 2003).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned that there is a scientific proof that in the past half-century majority of the global warming is being caused by human activities and if no action is taken to reduce emissions, then within two decades there will be twice as much warming as in the preceding years.
Number of efforts are being taken all over the world by Scientists, intellectuals, environmentalists and others and debates are going on to come out with the solutions to reduce the effects of global warming, but the most important step that can to the greater extent deal with the problem is the reduction of pollution globally. This can be achieved by more and more alternative usage of energy like wind, tidal solar and geothermal energies with greater efficiency and smarter technology.
Climate Leadership Initiative Institute for a Sustainable Environment, University of
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